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1522

Year 1522 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. January 9 – Pope Adrian VI succeeds Pope Leo X, as the 218th pope; the only Dutch pope, he will be the last non-Italian elected for more than 450 years. January 26 – Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila sets out from the gulf of Panama to explore the Pacific coast of Central America, he explores Nicaragua and names Costa Rica when he finds copious quantities of gold in Pacific beaches. April 27 – Battle of Bicocca: French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory. May – England presents an ultimatum to France and Scotland. June 19 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England, signs the Treaty of Windsor, pledging a joint invasion of France, bringing England into the Italian War of 1521–1526. July – The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais and looting the countryside. July 28 – Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I begins his siege the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.

August – The Knights' Revolt erupts in Germany. September 6 – The Vittoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world. September 21 – Luther Bible: Martin Luther's translation of the Bible's New Testament into Early New High German from Greek, Das newe Testament Deutzsch, is published in Germany, selling thousands in the first few weeks. November – The Diet of Nuremberg opens. December 18 – The Ottoman break into Rhodes, but the Knights continue fierce resistance in the streets. December 20 – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights, who are allowed to evacuate, they re-settle on Malta, become known as the Knights of Malta. The third edition of Erasmus's Greek Textus Receptus of the New Testament, Novum Testamentum, is published in Basel. Chinese Ming dynasty War Ministry official He Ru is the first to acquire the Portuguese breech-loading culverin, while copies of them are made by two Westernized Chinese at Beijing, Yang San and Dai Ming.

Australia is sighted by a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão de Mendonça, who maps the continent and names it Jave la Grande, according to the theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia. January 22 – Charles II de Valois, Duke of Orléans, February 2 Lodovico Ferrari, Italian mathematician Francesco Alciati, Italian Catholic cardinal March 10 – Miyoshi Nagayoshi, Japanese samurai and daimyō March 22 – Daniel Brendel von Homburg, Roman Catholic archbishop March 28 – Albert the Warlike, German prince April 23 – Catherine of Ricci, Italian prioress May 24 – John Jewel, English bishop June 1 – Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, Dutch writer and scholar July 5 – Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands July 13 – Sophia Jagiellon, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg July 25 – Anna of Lorraine July 31 – Charles II de Croÿ, Belgian duke August 4 – Udai Singh II, King of Mewar August 28 – Severinus of Saxony, Prince of Saxony.

2010 McDonald's Burnie International

The 2010 McDonald's Burnie International was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was the 8th edition of the tournament, part of the 2010 ATP Challenger Tour and 2010 ITF Women's Circuit, it took place in Burnie, between 1 and 7 February 2010. Rankings are as of 18 January 2010 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Dayne Kelly James Lemke Matt Reid Luke SavilleThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Joshua Crowe Nima Roshan Bernard Tomic Kittipong Wachiramanowong Bernard Tomic def. Greg Jones, 6–4, 6–2 Matthew Ebden / Samuel Groth def. James Lemke / Dane Propoggia, 6–7, 7–6, Arina Rodionova def. Jarmila Groth 6–1, 6–0 Jessica Moore / Arina Rodionova def. Tímea Babos / Anna Arina Marenko 6–2 6–4 Official website

John Gardiner (Australia)

John Gardiner was a banker and pastoralist in the early part of British settlement of Melbourne and Australia. In 1836, he established a settlement near the junction of the Yarra River and Kooyongkoot Creek, renamed after him. Gardiner was born in Ireland. At Colp, County Meath, on 9 September 1822 he married Mary Eagle. In October, accompanied by his wife, her parents and their three sons, he sailed for Van Diemen's Land in the Andromeda, he was soon granted 800 acres near Ross, Tasmania. In 1824, he accepted employment as a clerk with Bank of Van Diemen's Land, his only child, Anna Maria, was born in Hobart in July 1827. During March 1828, he left the bank to become a successful store-keeper in the Macquarie River district. In March 1834, he rented a 5,250 acres at Lovely Banks. In 1835, lost his tenancy and sailed for Sydney, he was discouraged by the severe drought. In 1836, he returned to Van Diemen's Land visited the one year old Port Phillip settlement and returned once more to Sydney. There he bought 300 head of cattle from Joseph Hawdon.

Both he and John Hepburn drove the cattle overland near Melbourne. Because of this journey, the first with stock, Gardiner is called an'Overlander'. Leaving his cattle and men at Gardiners Creek he returned to Sydney and arranged to send 200 more cattle to Port Phillip. In 1837, less than two years after Batman’s landing and within weeks of the formal laying out of Melbourne, Gardiner was searching for stray cattle from his cattle run which extended over most of present-day Hawthorn, when he discovered the upper Yarra regions. In 1838, he took out a grazing licence for a run bounded on three sides by Running Creek, the Yarra River and Mount Corhanwarrabul.. John Gardiner, together with his cousin, William Fletcher, David Gardiner, established the run – 15,000 acres, with grazing capabilities for 1300 head of cattle; the run included today's Croydon North and Mooroolbark. Gardiner himself spent little time there, instead staying close to his Gardiners Creek homestead where, as it is recorded in his wife’s diary, he had trouble with the local Aboriginal people spearing his cattle.

In September 1842, Melbourne encountered its first financial crisis. Gardiner returned to England, where he retired to Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. In March 1863, his wife, who had stayed in Melbourne with her daughter, died. Three months Gardiner married his cousin Sarah Fletcher, he died on 16 November 1878 at Leamington Spa. Several features of Melbourne have been named after John Gardiner, including: Gardiner's Creek A waterway in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, part of the Yarra River catchment. In Gardiner's time, the creek was known as Kooyongkoot. John Gardiner Reserve A park in Booroondara, the site of a former quarry John Gardiner Secondary College a secondary school, now closed. Auburn High School now occupies the site. Gardiner Road A road in Booroondara A. S. Kenyon,'The Overlanders', Victorian Historical Magazine, 10 Leslie J. Wilmoth,'Gardiner, John', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, MUP, 1966, p. 425

Dominions: Priests, Prophets and Pretenders

Dominions: Priests and Pretenders is a turn-based strategy game designed by Illwinter Game Design, in which up to fourteen "pretender gods" at a time each battle for global dominance. As of November 27, 2017, there have been four sequels: Dominions 2: The Ascension Wars, Dominions 3: The Awakening, Dominions 4: Thrones of Ascension, Dominions 5: Warriors of the Faith, released in 2017. Two to fourteen "pretender gods" battle for global supremacy with over 600 units, 400 magic spells and 300 magical items. Players are allowed to customize their god, selecting physical appearance, magical skills and dominions scales, including luck and order; the main map is divided into smaller sections, each battle that takes place is within a province, for control of the province. There can be hundreds of provinces on a map. To win, one must ensure that no other player controls a single province, or that their dominion is non-existent. Once each god and nation has been selected, each player must begin the process of building an empire.

In the early stages of the game, this is accomplished through the use of standard troops. The player must first recruit a commander; each commander can lead a certain number of troops, a number which increases as the commander gains experience. In order to be effective, the commander needs units; each unit has its own attributes, such as armor. Units are built by supplying a certain amount of gold and resource, the amount varying based on the unit; the units are placed under the leadership of a commander, are subdivided into squads by the player. The player can set basic orders for each squad and place them on the battlefield in order to maximize their potential. For example, a player might place a squad of ranged units behind a squad of militia and light infantry and order it to fire on the closest enemy, so the archers are protected and provide cover for the infantry; the battles, are determined by computer calculations taking into account troop number and pre-set tactics, may be viewed by the player as a short video clip.

Units may rout during battle if their commander dies. If they make it off the battlefield, units will flee to the nearest friendly province. Units may be wounded or killed in battle. Different wounds reduce different stats. Although crucial to the game, units are not the only component. Magic is key in deciding the victor of the match. Before a spell can be cast, it must be researched by mages. A mage is a commander with experience in one of the eight paths of magic. Mages cannot lead any troops, but can research and cast powerful spells. There are many different types of spells, as mages research the seven branches of magic, they unlock progressively more powerful spells, allowing them to do different things, from summoning powerful demons, to blasting enemies with powerful fireballs, to forging powerful magical artifacts. Artifacts and powerful spells cost magic gems, which can be acquired from special magic sites within provinces. A powerful mage can defeat an army of hundreds of units, by killing them.

Dominion is a measure of a god's influence and worshipers. It is measured in candles, white candles being a god's dominion, black candles being other dominions. A nation is weaker while fighting in enemy dominion and stronger while fighting in its own dominion. Dominion can be spread in several ways. One way is via temples. There can be one temple build per province for a certain amount of gold, it will spread dominion to all provinces near it. Another way is with a priest; each nation can only have one prophet at a time, but as many priests. A prophet is created. Priests and prophets are commanders that are characterized by having holy magic and the ability to preach. Preaching spreads dominion like a temple, but priests and prophets can move and cast holy spells, which can be effective against certain types of enemies

Tungsten hexafluoride

Tungsten fluoride known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6. It is a toxic, colorless gas, with a density of about 13 g/L It is one of the densest known gases under standard conditions. WF6 is used by the semiconductor industry to form tungsten films, through the process of chemical vapor deposition; this layer serves as a low-resistivity metallic "interconnect". It is one of seventeen known binary hexafluorides; the WF6 molecule is octahedral with the symmetry point group of Oh. The W–F bond distances are 183.2 pm. Between 2.3 and 17 °C, tungsten hexafluoride condenses into a pale yellow liquid having the density of 3.44 g/cm3 at 15 °C. At 2.3 °C it freezes into a white solid having a cubic crystalline structure, the lattice constant of 628 pm and calculated density 3.99 g/cm3. At −9 °C this structure transforms into an orthorhombic solid with the lattice constants of a = 960.3 pm, b = 871.3 pm, c = 504.4 pm, the density of 4.56 g/cm3. In this phase, the W–F distance is 181 pm, the mean closest intermolecular contacts are 312 pm.

Whereas WF6 gas is one of the densest gases, with the density exceeding that of the heaviest elemental gas radon, the density of WF6 in the liquid and solid state is rather moderate. The vapor pressure of WF6 between −70 °C and 17 °C can be described by the equation log10 P = 4.55569 −,where the P = vapor pressure, T = temperature. Tungsten hexafluoride is produced by the exothermic reaction of fluorine gas with tungsten powder at a temperature between 350 and 400 °C: W + 3 F2 → WF6The gaseous product is separated from WOF4, a common impurity, by distillation. In a variation on the direct fluorination, the metal is placed in a heated reactor pressurized to 1.2 to 2.0 psi, with a constant flow of WF6 infused with a small amount of fluorine gas. The fluorine gas in the above method can be substituted by ClF, ClF3 or BrF3. An alternative procedure for producing tungsten fluoride is to react tungsten trioxide with HF, BrF3 or SF4. Tungsten fluoride can be obtained by conversion of tungsten hexachloride: WCl6 + 6 HF → WF6 + 6 HCl or WCl6 + 2 AsF3 → WF6 + 2 AsCl3 or WCl6 + 3 SbF5 → WF6 + 3 SbF3Cl2 On contact with water, tungsten hexafluoride gives hydrogen fluoride and tungsten oxyfluorides forming tungsten trioxide: WF6 + 3 H2O → WO3 + 6 HFUnlike some other metal fluorides, WF6 is not a useful fluorinating agent nor is it a powerful oxidant.

It can be reduced to the yellow WF4. The dominant application of tungsten fluoride is in semiconductor industry, where it is used for depositing tungsten metal in a chemical vapor deposition process; the expansion of the industry in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in the increase of WF6 consumption, which remains at around 200 tonnes per year worldwide. Tungsten metal is attractive because of its high thermal and chemical stability, as well as low resistivity and electromigration. WF6 is favored over related compounds, such as WCl6 or WBr6, because of its higher vapor pressure resulting in higher deposition rates. Since 1967, two WF6 deposition routes have been developed and employed, thermal decomposition and hydrogen reduction; the required WF6 gas purity is rather high and varies between 99.98% and 99.9995% depending on the application. WF6 molecules have to be split up in the CVD process; the decomposition is facilitated by mixing WF6 with hydrogen, germane, diborane and related hydrogen-containing gases.

WF6 reacts upon contact with a silicon substrate. The WF6 decomposition on silicon is temperature-dependent: 2 WF6 + 3 Si → 2 W + 3 SiF4 below 400 °C and WF6 + 3 Si → W + 3 SiF2 above 400 °C; this dependence is crucial, as twice as much silicon is being consumed at higher temperatures. The deposition occurs selectively on pure Si only, but not on silicon oxide or nitride, thus the reaction is sensitive to contamination or substrate pre-treatment; the decomposition reaction is fast, but saturates when the tungsten layer thickness reaches 10–15 micrometers. The saturation occurs because the tungsten layer stops diffusion of WF6 molecules to the Si substrate, the only catalyst of molecular decomposition in this process. If the deposition occurs not in an inert but in an oxygen containing atmosphere instead of tungsten, a tungsten oxide layer is produced; the deposition process occurs at temperatures between 300 and 800 °C and results in formation of hydrofluoric acid vapors: WF6 + 3 H2 → W + 6 HFThe crystallinity of the produced tungsten layers can be controlled by altering the WF6/H2 ratio and the substrate temperature: low ratios and temperatures result in oriented tungsten crystallites whereas higher values favor the orientation.

Formation of HF is a drawback, as the HF vapor is aggressive and etches away most materials. The deposited tungsten shows poor adhesion to the silicon dioxide, the main passivation material in semiconductor electronics. Therefore, SiO2 has to be covered with an extra buffer layer prior to the tungsten deposition. On the other hand, etching by HF may be beneficial to remove unwanted impurity layers; the characteristic features of tungsten deposition from the WF6/SiH4 are high speed, good adhesion and layer smoothness. The drawbacks are explosion hazard and high sensitivity of the deposition rate and morphology to the process parameters, such as mixing ratio, substrate temperature, etc. Therefore, silane is used to create a thin tungsten nucleation layer, it is switched to hydrogen, that slows down the deposition and cleans up the layer. Deposition from WF6/GeH4 mixture is similar to that of WF6/SiH4, but the tungsten layer becomes contaminated with

Battle of Marj Ayyun

In the Battle of Marj Ayyun, alternately Marj Ayyoun, an Ayyubid army commanded by Saladin defeated a Crusader army led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem on 10 June 1179. The Christian king, crippled by leprosy, narrowly escaped being captured in the rout. In 1177 Saladin's Ayyubid army invaded the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem from Egypt. In that year King Baldwin defeated the Saracen host at the Battle of Montgisard. In 1179, Saladin again invaded the Crusader states, from the direction of Damascus, he based his army at Banias and sent raiding forces to despoil villages and crops near Sidon and the coastal areas. Farmers and townpeople impoverished by Saracen raiders would be unable to pay rent to their Frankish overlords. Unless stopped, Saladin's destructive policy would weaken the Crusader kingdom. In response, Baldwin moved his army to Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee. From there he marched north-northwest to the stronghold of Safed. Continuing in the same direction, he reached Toron castle, about 13 miles east-southeast of Tyre.

Together with the Knights Templar led by Odo of St Amand and a force from the County of Tripoli led by Count Raymond III, Baldwin moved northeast. From the eastern side of the coastal range, the Crusaders saw Saladin's tents in the distance. Baldwin and his nobles decided to descend to the attack at once; as the Frankish army moved downhill, the mounted troops soon outstripped the foot soldiers. After a few hours' delay, the Crusader army reassembled encountered and defeated the Saracen raiding forces, who were returning from their forays. Believing the battle won, the Franks let their guard down. Raymond's knights and Odo of St Amand's Templars moved onto some high ground between the Marj Ayyun and the Litani River; the Crusader infantry rested from their hurried march earlier in the day. Saladin's main army attacked the Crusaders, defeating them badly. Observers of the time blamed the defeat on Odo of St Amand, captured in the battle. King Baldwin escaped capture. Many Frankish survivors of the struggle fled to shelter at Beaufort Castle about 5 miles southwest of the battlefield.

Saladin took advantage of his victory by destroying the newly built Le Chastellet stronghold at the Battle of Jacob's Ford. In the years after Marj Ayyun, the Frankish leaders became more cautious and the next two campaigns of note, the Battle of Belvoir Castle and the Battle of Al-Fule were defensive in nature. Soleim Al-Razi was a Muslim physician who compassionately treated wounded crusaders captured by the Muslim forces. 1177: Battle of Montgisard 1179: Battle of Jacob's Ford 1182: Battle of Belvoir Castle 1183: Battle of Al-Fule 1187: Battle of Cresson 1187: Battle of Hattin