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Dai Prefecture

Dai Prefecture known by its Chinese name Daizhou, was a prefecture of imperial China in what is now northern Shanxi. It existed intermittently from AD 585 to 1912, its eponymous seat Daizhou was located at Shangguan in Dai County. The territory it administered included all or part of what are now the counties of Dai, Wutai and Yuanping in Shanxi's Xinzhou Prefecture. Dàizhōu is the pinyin form of the Standard Mandarin reading of the Chinese placename 代州. In the system of romanization devised by Thomas Wade and systematized by Herbert Giles, the same pronunciation is written Tai Prefecture, Tai Chou, or Tai-chou, it appeared as Taichow Sha on the Chinese Postal Map. Although "prefecture" only refers to an administrative office or area in English, the Chinese name can refer to either the prefecture or to the prefectural seat at old or new Guangwu; the prefectural seat was known for a time as Yanmen. During periods when the prefecture was demoted to county status, its seat was known as Daixian. Daizhou was named after Dai Commandery, abolished around the time of its formation though Guangwu County, in which Daizhou is located, had not been part of it.

The commandery in turn had been named after the former capital of the Baidi Kingdom of Dai, whose name represented a transcription of the native name using the Chinese character 代, pronounced dài in present-day Mandarin but had sounded like /*lˤək-s/ in Old Chinese. That city had been in Hebei's Yu County, but it was used for a series of petty states and appanages during the Warring States, Eighteen Kingdoms, Han which spread the name into Shanxi's Yanmen and Yunzhong Commanderies; this confusion sometimes caused some medieval writers to erroneously conflate locations in Dai Prefecture with places from the ancient stories concerning the Zhao conquest of the first Dai Kingdom. Dai Prefecture was created by renaming and reorganizing the earlier Si Prefecture in Yanmen Commandery; this occurred in AD 585 under the Wen Emperor of Sui. Its seat was at present-day Daixian, known as Guangwu until 598 and as Yanmen when its surrounding county was renamed due to the Chinese naming taboo, it was abolished and merged with Yanmen Commandery c. 607.

Dai Prefecture was reëstablished by the Tang in 618, abolished and merged with Yanmen Commandery again in 742, reëstablished a second time a few years in 758. Under the Tang, it formed part of Hedong Circuit. During this period, the seat at Daizhou administered a prefecture covering what are now the counties of Dai, Wutai and Yuanping. Under the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming, it was demoted to a county for six years beginning in 1369. Under the Qing, Dai was removed from the authority of Taiyuan Prefecture and made a directly-administered prefecture in 1724 or 1728. Following the Xinhai Revolution, it was converted into various counties in the Republic of China. Dai Various kingdoms and principalities of Dai in Chinese history Dai Commandery in early imperial China Dai County in present-day Shanxi 《代州》 at Baidu Baike 《代州》 at Baike.com

Pennsboro, West Virginia

Pennsboro is a city in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,171 at the 2010 census; the city is located at the junction of U. S. Route 50 and West Virginia Route 74; the town was platted about 1820 by Charles Penn, named for him. Pennsboro is located at 39°17′1″N 80°58′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.73 square miles, of which, 2.70 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,171 people, 522 households, 312 families living in the city; the population density was 433.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 590 housing units at an average density of 218.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.9% White, 0.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 522 households of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.2% were non-families.

34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the city was 41.7 years. 21.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,199 people, 515 households, 340 families living in the city; the population density was 550.8 people per square mile. There were 604 housing units at an average density of 277.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.67% White, 0.25% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population. There were 515 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,120, the median income for a family was $30,313. Males had a median income of $26,964 versus $20,714 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,325. About 16.5% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.1% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over