1530 in science
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- Otto Brunfels begins publication of his illustrated botanical catalogue Herbarium vivae icones, based on his own observations and giving the plants their German vernacular names.
- Georgius Agricola publishes Bermannus, sive de re metallica dialogus, his first work on scientific metallurgy.
- Approximate date – Jyeṣṭhadeva, a member of the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics in India, writes the Yuktibhāṣā, the world's first known text on the foundations of calculus.
- The name syphilis is coined by the Italian physician and poet Girolamo Fracastoro in his epic poem, Syphilis sive morbus gallicus.
- The first book devoted to dentistry, the Artzney Buchlein, is published.
- September 30 – Girolamo Mercuriale, Italian physician (died 1606)
- Mathew Baker, English shipwright (died 1613)
- 1529 or 1530 – Julius Caesar Aranzi, Italian anatomist (died 1589)
- approx. date – Thomas Penny, English botanist and entomologist (died 1589)
- Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, Italian anatomist (born 1460)
- "FAQS On the History of Dentistry" (PDF). Archives of the American Dental Association. American Dental Association. What was the name of the first book on dentistry?. Retrieved 2013-12-23.