15th century BC
The 15th century BC is a century which lasted from 1500 BC to 1401 BC. 1504 BC – 1492 BC: Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Rigveda was composed around this time. 1500 BC – 1400 BC: The Battle of the Ten Kings took place around this time. 1500 BC: Coalescence of a number of cultural traits including undecorated pottery, megalithic burials, millet-bean-rice agriculture indicate the beginning of the Mumun Pottery Period in the Korean peninsula. C. 1490 BC: Cranaus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 10 years by his son-in-law Amphictyon of Thessaly, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha. 1487 BC: Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha and legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 10 years and is succeeded by Erichthonius I of Athens, a grandson of Cranaus. C. 1480 BC: Queen Hatshepsut succeeded by her stepson and nephew Thutmosis III. Period of greatest Egyptian expansion. C. 1469 BC: In the Battle of Megiddo, Egypt defeats Canaan. C. 1460 BC: The Kassites overrun Babylonia and found a dynasty there that lasts for 576 years and nine months.
1437 BC: Legendary King Erichthonius I of Athens dies after a reign of 50 years and is succeeded by his son Pandion I. 1430 BC – 1160 BC: Hittite New Kingdom established. 1430 BC – 1178 BC: Beginning of Hittite empire. C. 1420 BC: Crete conquered by Mycenae—start of the Mycenaean period. First Linear B tablets. 1400 BC: In Crete the use of bronze helmets. 1400 BC: Palace of Minos destroyed by fire. C. 1400 BC: Linear A reaches its peak of popularity. C. 1400 BC: The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit. Royal Palace of Ugarit is built. Myceneans conquers border of Anatolia; the Tumulus culture flourishes. Earliest traces of Olmec civilization. Hatshepsut of Egypt, female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Thutmose III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty Amenhotep II, Pharaoh of Egypt The Shang Dynasty Chinese capital city at Ao had massive defensive walls of 20 metres in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 square yards. See: List of sovereign states in the 15th century BC
16th century BC
The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC. 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests. 1601 BC: Sharma-Adad II became the King of Assyria. C. 1600 BC: The creation of one of the oldest surviving astronomical documents, a copy of, found in the Babylonian library of Ashurbanipal: a 21-year record of the appearances of Venus: Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa. C. 1600 BC: The date of the earliest discovered rubber balls. C. 1600 BC: Early Mycenaean culture: weapons, Cyclopaean walls, chariots. C. 1600 BC: Unetice culture ends in Czech Republic, eastern Europe Development of the windmill in Persia. Unetice culture. 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I. c. 1595 BC: The overthrow of the ruling Amorite dynasty in Aleppo, Syria. 1570 BC: Cretan palaces at Knossos and other centres flourish despite disasters. 1567 BC: Egypt: End of Fifteenth Dynasty, end of Sixteenth Dynasty, end of Seventeenth Dynasty, start of Eighteenth Dynasty. 1556 BC: Cecrops I builds or rebuilds Athens following the great flood of Deucalion and the end of the Golden age.
He becomes the first of several Kings of Athens whose life account is considered part of Greek mythology. 1556 BC: Shang Dynasty of China established *. C. 1550 BC: The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, comes to dominate the rest of Achaea, giving its name to Mycenaean civilization. 1550 BC: End of Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Eighteenth Dynasty upon the coronation of Ahmose I. 1530 BC: End of the First Dynasty of Babylon and the start of the Kassite Dynasty—see History of Iraq. 1525 BC: End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. C. 1512 BC: The flood of Deucalion, according to O'Flaherty, Augustine and Isidore. 1506 BC: Cecrops I, legendary King of Athens, dies after a reign of 50 years. Having survived his own son, he is succeeded by Cranaus. 1504 BC: Egypt started to conquer Nubia and the Levant. C. 1500 BC: Many scholars date early parts of the Rig Veda to the 16th century. C. 1500 BC: Queen Hatsheput in Egypt. C. 1500 BC: The element Mercury has been discovered in Egyptian tombs dating from this decade.
C. 1500 BC: Settlers from Crete, Greece move to Miletus, Turkey. C. 1500 BC: Early traces of Maya civilization developing in Belize. C. 1500 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet—see Timeline of communication technology. C. 1500 BC: Indo-Aryan migration is dated to the 17th to 16th centuries. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some individual persons mentioned in this article ought to be considered legendary rather than historical. Tang of Shang, first ruler of Shang Dynasty, ruled China for 29 years since 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt. Ahmose I, Pharaoh and founder of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Hatshepsut, first female Pharaoh of Egypt c.1473 BC See: List of sovereign states in the 16th century BC
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. The Eighteenth Dynasty spanned the period from 1549/1550 to 1292 BC; this dynasty is known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs were from the Eighteenth Dynasty, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. Other famous pharaohs of the dynasty include Hatshepsut, the longest-reigning woman pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, Akhenaten, the "heretic pharaoh", with his Great Royal Wife, Nefertiti; the Eighteenth Dynasty is unique among Egyptian dynasties in that it had two women who ruled as sole pharaoh: Hatshepsut, regarded as one of the most innovative rulers of ancient Egypt, Neferneferuaten identified as the iconic Nefertiti. Dynasty XVIII was founded by Ahmose I, the brother or son of Kamose, the last ruler of the 17th Dynasty. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the Hyksos rulers.
His reign is seen as the start of the New Kingdom. Ahmose was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep I, whose reign was uneventful. Amenhotep I left no male heir and the next pharaoh, Thutmose I, seems to have been related to the royal family through marriage. During his reign the borders of Egypt's empire reached their greatest expanse, extending in the north to Carchemish on the Euphrates and in the south up to Kurgus beyond the fourth cataract of the Nile. Thutmose I was succeeded by Thutmose II and his queen, the daughter of Thutmose I. After her husband's death and a period of regency for her minor stepson Hatshepsut became pharaoh in her own right and ruled for over twenty years. Thutmose III, who became known as the greatest military pharaoh also had a lengthy reign after becoming pharaoh, he had a second co-regency in his old age with his son Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was succeeded by Thutmose IV, who in his turn was followed by his son Amenhotep III, whose reign is seen as a high point in this dynasty.
Amenhotep III undertook large scale building programmes, the extent of which can only be compared with those of the much longer reign of Ramesses II during Dynasty XIX. Amenhotep III may have shared the throne for up to twelve years with his son Amenhotep IV. There is much debate about this proposed co-regency, with different experts considering that there was a lengthy co-regency, a short one, or none at all. In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and moved his capital to Amarna, which he named Akhetaten. During the reign of Akhenaten, the Aten became, the most prominent deity, came to be considered the only god. Whether this amounted to true monotheism continues to be the subject of debate within the academic community; some state that Akhenaten created a monotheism, while others point out that he suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never abandoned several other traditional deities. Egyptians considered this "Amarna Period" an unfortunate aberration.
The events following Akhenaten's death are unclear. Individuals named Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten are known but their relative placement and role in history is still much debated. Tutankhamun took the throne but died young; the last two members of the Eighteenth Dynasty—Ay and Horemheb—became rulers from the ranks of officials in the royal court, although Ay might have been the maternal uncle of Akhenaten as a fellow descendant of Yuya and Tjuyu. Ay may have married the widowed Great Royal Wife and young half-sister of Tutankhamun, Ankhesenamun, in order to obtain power. Ay married Tey, Nefertiti's wet-nurse. Ay's reign was short, his successor was Horemheb, a general during Tutankhamun's reign whom the childless pharaoh may have intended as his successor. Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a coup. Horemheb died childless, having appointed his successor, Ramesses I, who ascended the throne in 1292 BC and was the first pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty; this example to the right depicts a man named Ay who achieved the exalted religious positions of Second Prophet of Amun and High Priest of Mut at Thebes.
His career flourished during the reign of Tutankhamun. The cartouches of King Ay, Tutankhamun's successor appearing on the statue, were an attempt by an artisan to "update" the sculpture. Radiocarbon dating suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC; the radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of, 1557 BC. The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for two hundred and fifty years; the dates and names in the table are taken from Hilton. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Several diplomatic marriages are known for the New Kingdom; these daughters of foreign kings are only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were to have been a way to confirm good relations between these states. Egyptian chronology Kuhrt, Amélie; the Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BC. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415013536.
Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh, an exhibition catalog from The
A star chart or star map called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily, they are used to identify and locate constellations and astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies. They have been used for human navigation since time immemorial. Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose. Tools utilizing a star chart include the planisphere; the oldest known star chart was drawn 5000 years ago by the Indias in Kashmir, which depict a supernova for the first time in human history. The oldest known star chart may be a carved ivory Mammoth tusk drawn by early people from Asia that moved into Europe, discovered in Germany in 1979; this artifact is 32,500 years old and has a carving that resembles the constellation, although it could not be confirmed and could be a pregnancy chart. Orion. A drawing on the wall of the Lascaux caves in France has a graphical representation of the Pleiades open cluster of stars.
This is dated from 33,000 to 10,000 years ago. Researcher Michael A. Rappenglueck has suggested that a panel in the same caves depicting a charging bison, a man with a bird's head and the head of a bird on top of a piece of wood, together may depict the summer triangle, which at the time was a circumpolar formation. Another star chart panel, created more than 21,000 years ago, was found in the La Tête du Lion grotto; the bovine in this panel may represent the constellation Taurus, with a pattern representing the Pleiades just above it. Rappenglueck discovered a drawing of the Northern Crown constellation in the cave of El Castillo, made in the same period as the Lascaux ones; the Nebra sky disk, a 30 cm wide bronze disk dated to 1600 BC, bears gold symbols interpreted as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, several stars including the Pleiades cluster and the Milky Way. The oldest dated star chart appeared in ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC; the earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period.
The oldest records of Chinese astronomy date to the Warring States period, but the earliest preserved Chinese star catalogues of astronomers Shi Shen and Gan De are found in the 2nd-century BC Shiji by the Western Han historian Sima Qian. The oldest Chinese graphical representation of the night sky is a lacquerware box from the 5th-century BC Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, although this depiction shows the positions of the Chinese constellations by name and does not show individual stars; the Farnese Atlas is a 2nd-century AD Roman copy of a Hellenistic era Greek statue depicting the Titan Atlas holding the celestial sphere on his shoulder. It is the oldest surviving depiction of the ancient Greek constellations, includes grid circles that provide coordinate positions; because of precession, the positions of the constellations change over time. By comparing the positions of the 41 constellations against the grid circles, an accurate determination can be made of the epoch when the original observations were performed.
Based upon this information, the constellations were catalogued at 125 ± 55 BC. This evidence indicates that the star catalogue of the 2nd-century BC Greek astronomer Hipparchus was used. A Roman era example of a graphical representation of the night sky is the Ptolemaic Egyptian Dendera zodiac, dating from 50 BC; this is a bas relief sculpting on a ceiling at the Dendera Temple complex. It is a planisphere depicting the zodiac in graphical representations. However, individual stars are not plotted; the oldest surviving manuscript star chart was the Dunhuang Star Chart, dated to the Tang dynasty and discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu, Western China along the Silk Road. This is a scroll 210 cm in length and 24.4 cm wide showing the sky between declinations 40° south to 40° north in twelve panels, plus a thirteenth panel showing the northern circumpolar sky. A total of 1,345 stars are grouped into 257 asterisms; the date of this chart is uncertain, but is estimated as 705–10 AD. During the Song dynasty, the Chinese astronomer Su Song wrote a book titled Xin Yixiang Fa Yao containing five maps of 1,464 stars.
This has been dated to 1092. In 1193, the astronomer Huang Shang prepared a planisphere along with explanatory text, it was engraved in stone in 1247, this chart still exists in the Wen Miao temple in Suzhou. In Muslim astronomy, the first star chart to be drawn was most the illustrations produced by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi in his 964 work titled Book of Fixed Stars; this book was an update of parts VII.5 and VIII.1 of the 2nd century Almagest star catalogue by Ptolemy. The work of al-Sufi contained illustrations of the constellations and portrayed the brighter stars as dots; the original book did not survive. The oldest European star map was a parchment manuscript titled De Composicione Spere Solide, it was most produced in Vienna, Austria in 1440 and consisted of a two-part map depicting the constellations of the northern celestial hemisphere and the ecliptic. This may have served as a prototype for the oldest European printed star chart, a 1515 set of woodcut portraits produced by Albrecht Dürer in Nuremberg, Germany.
During the European Age of Discovery, expeditions to the southern hemisphere began to result in the addition of new constellations. These most came from the records of two Dutch sailors, Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman, who in 1595 t
History of Iraq
The current territory of the modern state of Iraq was defined by the Anglo-Iraqi treaty of 1922 which resulted from the 1920 Iraqi revolt against British occupation. It centers on Lower Mesopotamia but includes part of Upper Mesopotamia and of the Syrian Desert and the Arabian Desert; the history of this area has witnessed some of the world's earliest writing, sciences, mathematics and philosophies. As part of the larger Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia saw the earliest emergence of civilization in the Neolithic Age and formed a significant part of the Ancient Near East throughout the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Mesopotamia fell under Persian and Greek rule. By the 3rd century, when it was once again under Persian control, the earlier and larger population was converted from the religion of the ancient and Christianity to Islam during the reign of Timur-lang. Furthermore, a small population of Arab Muslim ruling minority, succeeded in the transformation of the Mesopotamians old religions to Islam, yet with a significant help of the native Christians.
As for the Name of the country'Iraq' it is derived from the Sumerian city of'URUK', a name well known to the natives long before the Arrival of Arab Muslim invaders. The Sassanid Empire was destroyed by the Islamic conquests and displaced by the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century. Baghdad became the center of the "Islamic Golden Age" under the Abbasid Caliphate during the 9th century. Baghdad's rapid growth stagnated in the 10th century due to the Buwayhid and Seljuq invasions, but it remained of central importance until the Mongol invasion of 1258. After this, Iraq declined in importance. After the disintegration of the Ilkhanate, Iraq was ruled by the Jalairids and Kara Koyunlu until its eventual absorption into the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, intermittently falling under Iranian Safavid and Mamluk control. Ottoman rule ended with World War I, the British Empire administered Iraq as Mandatory Iraq until the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq in 1933. A republic formed in 1958 following a coup d'état.
Saddam Hussein governed from 1979 to 2003, into which period fall the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Saddam Hussein was deposed following the 2003 US-led invasion of the country. Over the following years, Iraq came to the brink of civil war, the situation deteriorated after the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2011. By 2015, Iraq was divided, the central and southern part being controlled by the government, the northwest by the Kurdistan Regional Government and the western part by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. During 1957–1961 Shanidar Cave was excavated by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University, nine skeletons of Neanderthal man of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness were discovered dating from 60,000–80,000 years BP. A tenth individual was discovered by M. Zeder during examination of a faunal assemblage from the site at the Smithsonian Institution; the remains seemed to Zeder to suggest that Neanderthals had funeral ceremonies, burying their dead with flowers, that they took care of injured and elderly individuals.
Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, Mathematics and Agriculture." Sumer emerged as the civilization of Lower Mesopotamia out of the prehistoric Ubaid period in the Early Bronze Age Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian renaissance in the 21st century, cut short in the 20th century BC by Amorite invasion; the Amorite dynasty of Isin persisted until c. 1600 BC, when southern Mesopotamia was united under Kassite Babylonian rule. The north of Mesopotamia had become the Akkadian-speaking state of Assyria by the late 25th century BC. Along with the rest of Mesopotamia it was ruled by Akkadian kings from the late 24th to mid 22nd centuries BC, after which it once again became independent.
Babylonia was a state in Lower Mesopotamia with Babylon as its capital. It was founded as an independent state by an Amorite king named Sumuabum in 1894 BC. During the 3rd millennium BCE, there developed a intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC, but Sumerian continued to be used as a written or ceremonial language in Mesopotamia well into the period of classical antiquity. Babylonia emerged from the Amorite dynasties when Hammurabi, unified the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. During the early centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states were Isin and Larsa, although Shamshi-Adad I came close to uniting the more northern regions around Assur and Mari. One of these Amorite dynasties was established in the city-state of Babylon, which would take over the others and form the
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis; the wadi consists of East Valley and West Valley. With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers, it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. All of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the pharaohs; this area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest.
In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration and conservation continues in the valley, a new tourist centre has been opened; the Valley of the Kings is situated over 1,000 feet of limestone and other sedimentary rock, which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri, interspersed with soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was deposited between 35–56 million years ago during a time when the Mediterranean Sea sometimes extended as far south as Aswan. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. There is little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs; the quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound.
The occasional layer of shale caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features; some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, or were at the edge of rock spurs created by ancient flood channels. The problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14; when looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis due to the quality of the rock being excavated. Between 1998 and 2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project investigated the valley floor using ground-penetrating radar and found that, below the modern surface, the Valley's cliffs descend beneath the scree in a series of abrupt, natural "shelves", arranged one below the other, descending several metres down to the bedrock in the valley floor.
The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunderstorms, causing flash floods in the valley. Recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley; this central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, with several tombs buried under metres of debris. The tombs KV63, KV62, KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. After this event dynasties leveled the floor of the valley, making the floods deposit their load further down the valley, the buried tombs were forgotten and only discovered in the early 20th century; this was the area, the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, which showed several anomalies, one of, proved to be KV63. The Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or "The Peak".
It has a pyramid-shaped appearance, it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, more than a thousand years prior to the first royal burials carved here. Its isolated position resulted in reduced access, special tomb police were able to guard the necropolis. While the iconic pyramid complexes of the Giza plateau have come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the majority of tombs were cut into rock. Most pyramids and mastabas contain sections which are cut into ground level, there are full rock-cut tombs in Egypt that date back to the Old Kingdom. After the defeat of the Hyksos and the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I, the Theban rulers began to construct elaborate tombs that reflected their newfound power; the tombs of Ahmose and his son Amenhotep I were in the Seventeenth Dyna
17th century BC
The 17th century BC was a century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC. c. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture. 1700 BC: Belu-bani became the King of Assyria. C. 1700 BC: Minoan Old Palace period ends and Minoan Second Palace period starts in Ancient Greece. C. 1700 BC: beginning of the Late Minoan period on Crete. C. 1700 BC: Aegean metalworkers are producing decorative objects rivaling those of Ancient Near East jewelers, whose techniques they seem to borrow. C. 1700 BC: Lila-Ir-Tash started to rule the Elamite Empire. C. 1700 BC: 1450 BC: Young girl gathering saffron crocus flowers, detail of wall painting, Room 3 of House Xeste 3, Thera, is made. Second Palace period, it is now kept in Petros M. Nomikos, Greece. C. 1700 BC: Bronze Age starts in China. C. 1698 BC: Lila-Ir-Tash the ruler of the Elamite Empire died. Temti-Agun I started to rule the Elamite Empire. 1691 BC: Belu-bani, the King of Assyria died. C. 1690 BC: Temti-Agun I, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, died.
Tan-Uli started to rule the Elamite Empire. 1690 BC: Libaia became the King of Assyria. C. 1680 BC: Egypt: Development of leavened bread. 1675 BC: Tang of Shang, first ruler of the Shang Dynasty becomes ruler in China. C. 1673 BC: Sharma-Adad I became the King of Assyria. C. 1661 BC: Iptar-Sin became the King of Assyria. C. 1655 BC: Tan-Uli, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, died. C. 1650 BC: Collapse of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Conquest of Memphis by the Hyksos and collapse of the 13th Dynasty of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Start of the 15th and 16th Dynasties of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Possibly, start of the Abydos Dynasty in Upper Egypt. C. 1646 BC or earlier: Jie of Xia is overthrown by Tang of Shang in the Battle of Mingtiao. 1649 BC: Bazaia became the King of Assyria. 1633 BC – May 2 – Lunar Saros 34 begins. 1627 BC: Beginning of a cooling of world climate lasting several years recorded in tree-rings all over the world. It may have been caused by the Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius. 1625 BC: Samsu-Ditana becomes King of Babylon.
1621 BC: Lullaia becomes the King of Assyria. 1620 BC: Mursili I becomes King of the Hittite Empire. 1615 BC: Shu-Ninua became the King of Assyria. Jie, The last ruler of Xia Dynasty, ruled China for 52 years until 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. 1686 BC – Hammurabi 1684 BC – Heremon, Irish legend The last known population of woolly mammoth, preserved on Wrangel Island, becomes extinct. See: List of sovereign states in the 17th century BC