1540 Kevola

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1540 Kevola
Discovery [1]
Discovered by L. Oterma
Discovery site Turku Obs.
Discovery date 16 November 1938
MPC designation (1540) Kevola
Named after
Kevola Observatory[2]
1938 WK · 1926 GT
1933 UM · 1933 WR
1936 KL · 1937 QG
1940 EJ
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 91.23 yr (33,320 days)
Aphelion 3.0937 AU
Perihelion 2.6068 AU
2.8502 AU
Eccentricity 0.0854
4.81 yr (1,758 days)
0° 12m 17.28s / day
Inclination 11.971°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 37.12±13.60 km[5]
40.16±0.59 km[6]
40.22±13.69 km[7]
43.875±0.318 km[8]
44.18±1.7 km[9]
44.22 km (derived)[3]
20.071±0.0119 h[10]
20.082±0.001 h[11]
0.0474 (derived)[3]
10.640±0.003 (R)[10] · 10.70[3][7][8] · 10.80[1][6][9] · 10.83[5] · 10.83±0.36[12]

1540 Kevola, provisional designation 1938 WK, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 42 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 16 November 1938, by astronomer Liisi Oterma at the Iso-Heikkilä Observatory in Turku, Finland.[13] The asteroid was named after the Finnish Kevola Observatory.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Kevola is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population.[4] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.6–3.1 AU once every 4 years and 10 months (1,758 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.09 and an inclination of 12° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins with its first identification as 1926 GT at Heidelberg Observatory in April 1926, more than 12 years prior to its official discovery observation at Turku.[13]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Kevola is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In February 2007, a rotational lightcurve of Kevola was obtained from photometric observations by French amateur astronomer Pierre Antonini. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 20.082 hours with a brightness variation of 0.23 magnitude (U=3-).[11] Another lightcurve obtained by astronomers at the Palomar Transient Factory in October 2010, gave a concurring period of 20.071 hours with an amplitude of 0.33 magnitude (U=2).[10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kevola measures between 37.12 and 44.18 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0433 and 0.06.[5][6][7][8][9]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0474 and a diameter of 44.22 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.7.[3]


This minor planet was named for the Finnish Kevola Observatory (064).[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3930).[14]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1540 Kevola (1938 WK)" (2017-07-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1540) Kevola. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 122. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1540) Kevola". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1540) Kevola". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "1540 Kevola (1938 WK)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 

External links[edit]