# 1544 in science

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The year **1544 in science** and technology involved some significant events.

## Contents

## Botany[edit]

- Orto botanico di Pisa botanical garden established by Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, under the direction of Luca Ghini, who also creates the first herbarium.
- Publication of Valerius Cordus' herbal
*Historia Plantarum*. - Publication of Pietro Andrea Mattioli's
*Discorsi*("Commentaries") on the*Materia Medica*of Dioscorides, adding descriptions of some plants not of medical use, including the first reference to the tomato in Europe.^{[1]}

## Geography[edit]

- Sebastian Münster's description of the world,
*Cosmographia*, is published in Basel.

## Geology[edit]

- Georgius Agricola publishes
*De ortu et causis subterraneorum*, laying the foundations of modern physical geology.

## Geophysics[edit]

- Magnetic dip is first described in Europe by Georg Hartmann.
^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}

## Mathematics[edit]

- Michael Stifel's
*Arithmetica integra*is published in Nuremberg, containing the first European use of multiplication by juxtaposition, the first use of the term*exponent*, and a table of integers and powers of two considered as an early version of a logarithmic table.^{[6]}^{[7]}

## Zoology[edit]

- William Turner's
*Avium praecipuarum, quarum apud Plinium et Aristotelem mentio est, brevis et succincta historia*is published in Cologne, the first printed book devoted entirely to ornithology.

## Births[edit]

## Deaths[edit]

- September 24 – Valerius Cordus, German physician and botanist (born 1515).
- Nilakantha Somayaji, Keralan mathematician and astronomer (born 1444).

## References[edit]

**^**Allen, George (November 1952). "The History of the Use of the Tomato: An Annotated Bibliography".*Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden*.**39**(4): 291. doi:10.2307/2399094.**^**Kivelson, Margaret G.; Russell, Christopher T., eds. (1995).*Introduction to Space Physics*. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-521-45714-9.**^**Jonkers, Art R.T. (2004). "Erdmagnetismus zur Zeit der Seefahrer" (PDF).*Physik Journal*: 55–59. Retrieved 2011-04-20.**^**Klemm, H. G. (1990).*Georg Hartmann aus Eggolsheim (1489–1564): Leben und Werk eines fräkischen Mathematiker und Ingenieurs*. Wissenschaftliche und künsterlische Beiträge, Ehrenburg-Gymnasium Forscheim, Heft 8. Forscheim.**^**Klemm, Hans Gunther (1994).*Magnetismus-Beobachtungen Bei Den Humanistischen Mathematikern Georg Hartmann und Georg Joachim Rheticus*. Erlangen.**^**Ball, W. W. Rouse (1908).*A Short Account of the History of Mathematics*. Macmillan and Co. p. 216.**^**Groza, Vivian Shaw; Shelley, Susanne M. (1972).*Precalculus Mathematics*. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-03-077670-0.