The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century. During the 16th century and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia; this era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, met with strong resistance, Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova; these events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English and French. Mississippian culture disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made, it is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum. 1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest religion in the world Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto.
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia's of a homelessness of a.
Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade.
After receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is destroyed in Malacca.. 1509–10: The'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England. 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentar
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
Edward VI of England
Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council; the council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland. Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace; the transformation of the Church of England into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.
It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism was established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, the imposition of compulsory services in English. In February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill; when his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", to prevent the country's return to Catholicism. Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir, excluding his half-sisters and Elizabeth; this decision was disputed following Edward's death, Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex, he was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with joy and relief.
Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes". Queen Jane, appearing to recover from the birth, sent out signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on 15 October, with his half-sisters, the 21-year-old Lady Mary as godmother and the 4-year-old Lady Elizabeth carrying the chrisom; the Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, died the following night. Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence... hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness". Edward was a healthy baby who suckled from the outset, his father was delighted with him. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported vigour; the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a life-threatening "quartan fever", despite occasional illnesses and poor eyesight, he enjoyed good health until the last six months of his life.
Edward was placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, "lady mistress" of the prince's household. She was succeeded by Lady Troy; until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, "among the women". The formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymour's wife, Anne Stanhope. Henry demanded exacting standards of security and cleanliness in his son's household, stressing that Edward was "this whole realm's most precious jewel". Visitors described the prince, lavishly provided with toys and comforts, including his own troupe of minstrels, as a contented child. From the age of six, Edward began his formal education under Richard Cox and John Cheke, concentrating, as he recalled himself, on "learning of tongues, of the scripture, of philosophy, all liberal sciences", he received tuition from Elizabeth's tutor, Roger Ascham, Jean Belmain, learning French and Italian. In addition, he is known to have studied geometry and learned to play musical instruments, including the lute and the virginals.
He collected globes and maps and, according to coinage historian C. E. Challis, developed a grasp of monetary affairs that indicated a high intelligence. Edward's religious education is assumed to have favoured the reforming agenda, his religious establishment was chosen by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a leading reformer. Both Cox and Cheke were "reformed" Catholics or Erasmians and became Marian exiles. By 1549, Edward had written a treatise on the pope as Antichrist and was making informed notes on theological controversies. Many aspects of Edward's religion were Catholic in his early years, including celebration of the mass and reverence for images and relics of the saints. Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother and visited him – on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own working". Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of her taste for foreign dances. In 1543, Henry invited his children to spend Christmas with him, signalling hi
1540s in architecture
1545 – Part of the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice collapses, causing the architect, Jacopo Sansovino, to be imprisoned briefly. 1546 – Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. 1549 – The spire of Lincoln Cathedral in England is blown down. 1540 Kamran's Baradari in Lahore completed Approximate date of completion of some of the Device Forts on the coast of England: Calshot, Sandgate and Walmer Castles Approximate date of the construction of Santa Cecilia Chapel in Għajnsielem, Malta c. 1541 Portland Castle on the Isle of Portland, completed Qila-i-Kuhna Mosque in the Purana Qila in Delhi completed 1541–1544 – Old Hall of Berkhamsted School in England built 1542 Andrea Palladio completes his first commission at Villa Godi, first of his Palladian villas of Veneto. 1544 – King's College Chapel, Cambridge completed 1544–1549 – Xuanfu–Datong section of Ming Great Wall of China constructed c. 1546 – Loggetta del Sansovino of St Mark's Campanile in Piazza San Marco, designed by Jacopo Sansovino, is completed 1547 Construction of the Château de Chambord ceases on the death of Francis I of France Yarmouth Castle on the Isle of Wight is completed c.1540 – Sedefkar Mehmed Agha, Ottoman architect 1548: September 2 – Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect 1543: June 25 – Giovanni Mangone, Italian sculptor, military engineer and antiquarian 1546 August 3 – Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Italian architect November 1 – Giulio Romano, Italian painter and architect
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500. In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, the Early modern period. Many technological and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades, until the Council of Constance; the division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Constantinople, in what is today Turkey the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages; the event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery, which would lead to the global mapping of the world.
Explorations by the Portuguese and Spanish led to European sightings of the Americas and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires; the fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing Press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance; the Spanish Reconquista leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain back to Christian rulers. The Hundred Years' War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England; the conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the part of the century.
In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire. In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia; the vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire. In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence. 1400s 1401: Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day central India 1402: Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid I. 1402: Sultanate of Malacca founded by Parameshwara. 1403: The Yongle Emperor moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing. 1403: The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire.
1405–1433: Zheng He of China sails through the Indian Ocean to India and East Africa to spread China's influence and sovereignty. 1405: Paregreg war, Majapahit civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. 1405–1407: The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Malacca, Aru and Lambri. 1410s 1410: The Battle of Grunwald is the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights. 1410–1413: Foundation of St Andrews University in Scotland. 1414: Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan, takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty. 1415: Henry the Navigator leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire. 1415: Battle of Agincourt fought between the Kingdom of England and France. 1415: Jan Hus is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance.1420s 1420: Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.
1420–1434: Hussite Wars in Bohemia. 1424: James I returns to Scotland after being held hostage under three Kings of England since 1406. 1424: Deva Raya II succeeds his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire. 1425: Catholic University of Leuven founded by Pope Martin V. 1429: Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War. 1429: Queen Suhita succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.1430s 1431 January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France under English occupation. March 3 – Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V, to become the 207th pope. March 26 – The trial of Joan of Arc begins. May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. June 16 – the Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of Christmemel, creating anti-Polish alliance September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists. October 30 – Treaty of Medina del Campo, consolidating peace between Portugal and Castille.
December 16 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France. 1438: Pachacuti founds the Inca Empire.1440s 1440: Eton College founded by Henry VI. 1440s: The Golden Horde breaks up into the Siberia Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, the Great Horde. 1440–1469: Under Moctezuma I, the Aztecs become the dominant power in Mesoamerica. 1440: Oba Ewuare comes to power in the West African city of Benin, turns it into an empire. 1441: Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter, dies. 1441: Portuguese navigators cruise West
The 1530s decade ran from January 1, 1530, to December 31, 1539. Year 1530 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. February 14 – Tangaxuan II, last cazonci of the Tarascan State, is executed by conquistador Nuño de Guzmán, ending the Tarascan State's independence from Spain. February 24 – Charles V is crowned emperor in Bologna, by Pope Clement VII. June 25 – The Augsburg Confession is presented to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. August 3 – Battle of Gavinana: Florence is captured by Spanish troops under Prince Philibert of Chalon; the Piagnon are overthrown, ending the Siege of Florence, the Medici are restored, in the person of the Pope's nephew Alessandro de' Medici. September 15 – The miraculous portrait of Saint Dominic in Soriano appears in Soriano Calabro, Calabria. October 8 – A flood engulfs Rome. October 26 – The Knights of Malta are formed, when the Knights Hospitaller are given Malta by Charles V, they transfer the island capital from Mdina to Birgu. November 5 – St. Felix's flood devastates Zeeland: a large part of the Verdronken Land van Reimerswaal is lost leading to decline of the city of Reimerswaal.
December – Martim Afonso de Sousa's expedition sets out for the Americas from Portugal. The ducal palace of Celle is constructed in Germany. Austrian forces capture Esztergom and raid as far as Buda. Humayun starts to rule the Mughal Empire. Paracelsus leaves Nürnberg. Erasmus publishes A handbook on manners for children, which becomes popular and translated. January 26 – Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake, in which thousands die. February 27 – Lutheran princes in the Holy Roman Empire form an alliance known as the Schmalkaldic League. February or March – Battle of Antukyah: Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of the Adal Sultanate defeats the Ethiopian army. April – Battle of Puná: Francisco Pizarro defeats the island's native inhabitants. April 16 – The city of Puebla, Mexico, is founded. May – The third Dalecarlian rebellion in Sweden appears to be over, when the king accepts an offer made by the rebels, but violence flares up again the following year. June 24 – The city of San Juan del Río, Mexico, is founded.
July 25 – The city of Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico is founded. August 26 – Comet Halley achieves its perihelion. September 22 – Battle of Obertyn: The Moldavians are defeated by Polish forces under Jan Tarnowski, allowing the Poles to recapture Pokucie. October 11 – Battle of Kappel: The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. Huldrych Zwingli, the Swiss religious reformer, is killed. October 28 – Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia; the southern part of Ethiopia thus falls under Imam Ahmad's control. December 9 – The Virgin of Guadalupe first appears to Juan Diego at Tepeyac, Mexico City. December 12 – Mary, mother of Jesus, in the guise of Our Lady of Guadalupe, appears imprinted on the tilmàtli of Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, an Aztec convert to Catholicism, in Tepeyac near Mexico City. Andrea Alciato publishes the first part of his Emblemata. Conquistador Francisco de Montejo claims Chichen Itza as capital of Spanish-ruled Yucatán.
The University of Sarajevo is founded by Gazi Husrev-beg. Kõpu Lighthouse is completed. An enormous drought in Henan province, coupled with a gigantic swarm of locusts in the summer, forces many in destitute agricultural communities to turn to cannibalism instead of dying by starvation. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor abolishes the worst abuses of the encomienda system, by pressure of Bartolomé de las Casas. A witch-hunt is conducted in the town of Germany. January 22 – São Vicente is established, as the first permanent Portuguese settlement in Brazil. March 18 – The English Parliament bans payment by the English Church to Rome. April – Battle of Quipaipan in Peru: Atahualpa wins the civil war in the Inca Empire, defeating his brother Huáscar. May 13 – Francisco Pizarro lands on the northern coast of Peru. May 16 – Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. June 25 – Suleiman the Magnificent leads another invasion of Hungary. July 23, the Nuremberg Religious Peace was granted to members of the Schmalkaldic League, granting them religious liberty.
August 13 – Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany is absorbed into the Kingdom of France. September 1 – Lady Anne Boleyn is created Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII of England. November 16 – Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca and slaughtering a large number of his followers, without loss to themselves, he subsequently offers a ransom of $100 million in gold. The Prince is published five years after the death of Niccolò Machiavelli. Pantagruel is published by François Rabelais. Henry VIII of England grants to found Bristol Grammar School. Stamford School is founded by William Radcliffe; the Paris Parlement has the city's beggars arrested "to force them to work in the sewers, chained together in pairs". January 25 – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, who becomes his second queen consort. January 26 – Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden, is appointed Lord Chancellor of England. March 30 – Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
May 23 – King Henry VIII of England's marriage with Catherine of Aragon is declared annulled by Archbishop Cranmer. Since Pope Clement VII had rejected Henry's petition for annulment in 1530, Catherine continues to believe herself Henry's wife until her death. June 1 – Cranmer crowns Anne Boleyn as queen consort of England, in Westminster Abbey. July 11 – Henry VIII is excommunica
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, according to some historians, the General Crisis; the greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the Islamic world, the Ottoman and Mughal empires grew in strength. In the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP.
In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde; the semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a expanded royal court could be more kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded, it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.
By the end of the century and Indians were aware of logarithms, the telescope and microscope, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was a period of development of culture in general. 1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills one-third of Russia. 1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries.
1602: The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of shōgun, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868. 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam 1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. 1606: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary. 1607: Flight of the Earls occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland. 1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh. He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow.
1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac. 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. 1612: Costwold Olympic Games, Robert Dover 1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. 1613: The Dutch East India Company is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. 1615: The Battle of Osaka ends. 1616: The last remaining Moriscos in Spain are expelled. 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies. 1618: The Defenestration of Prague. 1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years' War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. 1618: The Manchus start invading China.
Their conquest topples the Ming dynasty. 1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Ja