1550s in Denmark
- The construction of Hesselagergård Manor is completed.
1. 1550 – Year 1550 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. January 6 – Spanish Captain Hernando de Santana founds the city of Valledupar in what is now Colombian territory, february 8 – Pope Julius III succeeds Pope Paul III as the 221st pope. March 12 – Several hundred Spanish and indigenous troops under the command of Pedro de Valdivia defeat an army of 60,000 Mapuche at the Battle of Penco during the Arauco War in present-day Chile. June 12 – The city of Helsinki, Finland is founded by King Gustav I of Sweden, july 7 – Chocolate is introduced to Europe. July 21 – The Society of Jesus is approved by Pope Julius III, the first grammatical description of the French language is published by Louis Maigret. The first book in Slovene, Catechismus, written by Protestant reformer Primož Trubar, is printed in Schwäbisch Hall, john Dee finishes his studies at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Navigable summit level canal completed between Alster and the Trave, approximate date – The discovery of silver at Zacatecas and Guanajuato in Mexico, and Potosí in Bolivia, stimulates silver rushes
2. Denmark – The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979. In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government. The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
3. Christian III of Denmark – Christian III reigned as king of Denmark from 1534 until his death and Norway from 1537 until his death. During his reign, Christian established Lutheranism as the religion within his realms as part of the Protestant Reformation. Christian was the eldest son of future king Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg and he was born at Gottorf Castle which Frederick I had made a primary residence. In 1514, when he was just ten years old, Christians mother died, four years later, his father remarried to Sophie of Pomerania. In 1523, Frederick I was elected king of Denmark in the place of his nephew, the young prince Christians first public service after his father became king was gaining the submission of Copenhagen, which stood firm for the fugitive Christian II. As stadtholder of the Duchies of Holstein and Schleswig in 1526, Christians earliest teacher, Wolfgang von Utenhof, and his Lutheran tutor, the military general Johann Rantzau, were both zealous reformers who had an influence on the young prince. At their urging, while traveling in Germany in 1521, he made present at the Diet of Worms to hear Martin Luther speak. The prince made no secret of his Lutheran views and his outspokenness brought him into conflict, not only with the Roman Catholic Rigsraad, but also with his cautious and temporizing father. At his own court at Schleswig he did his best to introduce the Protestant Reformation and he made the Lutheran Church the State Church of Schleswig-Holstein with the Church Ordinance of 1528. After his fathers death, in 1533, Christian was proclaimed king at an assembly in Rye, Christian II had supported both the Roman Catholics and Protestant Reformers at various times. In opposition to King Christian III, Count Christopher was proclaimed regent at the Ringsted Assembly and this resulted in a two-year civil war, known as the Counts Feud, between Protestant and Catholic forces. Count Christopher had the support of most of Zealand, Scania, the Hanseatic League, Christian III found his support among the nobles of Jutland. In 1534, peasants under Skipper Clement began an uprising in northern Jutland, an army of nobles and their vassals assembled at Svendstrup and suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of the peasants. Clement and his army fled north, taking refuge inside the walls of Aalborg, in December, Rantzaus forces breached the walls and stormed the city. In the following days 3,000 people were massacred and the city was plundered by the Protestant German mercenaries, Clement managed to escape the slaughter, but was apprehended a few days later. He was tried and beheaded in 1535, with Jutland more or less secure, Christian next focused on gaining control of Scania. He appealed to the Protestant Swedish king Gustav Vasa for help in subduing the rebels, Gustav immediately obliged by sending two armies to ravage central Scania and Halland. The peasants suffered a defeat at Loshult in Scania
4. Frederick II of Denmark – Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death. Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and he was hailed as successor to the Throne of Denmark in 1542 and of Norway in 1548. As king, he visited Norway in 1585, when he came to Båhus, unlike his father, he was strongly affected by military ideals. Already as a man he made friendship with German war princes. Shortly after his succession he won his first victory with the conquest of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein by Johan Rantzau during the summer of 1559, from his predecessor, he inherited the Livonian War. In 1560, he installed his younger brother Magnus of Holstein in the Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Frederick largely tried to avoid conflict in Livonia and consolidated amicable relations to Ivan IV in the 1562 Treaty of Mozhaysk. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, Magnus was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578. His competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic broke out into open warfare in 1563, the start of the Seven Years War and he tried in vain to conquer Sweden, which was ruled by his cousin, King Eric XIV. It developed into an expensive war of attrition in which the areas of Scania were ravaged by the Swedes. During this war the king led his army personally on the battlefield, the conflict damaged his relationship to his noble councillors, however the Sture Murders of 24 May 1567 by the insane King Eric XIV in Sweden helped stabilize the situation in Denmark. After the war Frederick kept the peace without giving up his attempt of trying to expand his prestige as a naval ruler and his foreign politics were marked by a moral support of the Protestant powers – but at the same time by a strict neutrality. In 1552, Steward of the Realm Peder Oxe had been raised to Councillor of State, during the spring of 1557, Oxe and the King had quarreled over a mutual property exchange. Failing to compromise matters with the king, Oxe had fled to Germany in 1558, however, financial difficulties arose during the stress of the Northern Seven Years War. After state finances collapsed during the years 1566 to 1567, Frederik called Peder Oxe home to address the kingdoms economy, the taking over of Danish administration and finances by the able councillor, provided a marked improvement for the national treasury. Councillors of experience including Niels Kaas, Arild Huitfeldt and Christoffer Valkendorff took care of the domestic administration, subsequently government finances were put in order and Denmarks economy improved. One of the chief expedients of the state of affairs was the raising of the Sound Dues. Oxe, as treasurer, reduced the national debt considerably. This was a period of affluence and growth in Danish history, Frederick II rebuilt Kronborg castle in Elsinore between 1574 and 1585
5. Sophia Brahe – Sophia or Sophie Brahe or after marriage Sophie Thott Lange, was a Danish horticulturalist with knowledge of astronomy, chemistry, and medicine. She assisted her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations and she was born in Knudstrup, as the youngest of ten children, to Otte Brahe rigsråd, or advisor to the King of Denmark, and Beate Bille Brahe, leader of the royal household for Queen Sophie. Famous astronomer Tycho Brahe,10 years her senior, was Sophies oldest brother, when she was 17, she started assisting her brother with his astronomical observations in 1573, and helped him with the work that became the basis for modern planetary orbit predictions. She frequently visited his observatory Uranienborg, on the island of Hveen. Tycho wrote that he had trained her in horticulture and chemistry and he expressed with pride that she learned astronomy on her own, studying books in German, and having Latin books translated with her own money so that she could also study them. Brother and sister were united by their work in science, Tycho referred with admiration to her animus invictus, her determined mind. She married Otto Thott in 1576, a man than her. She had one child with him before he died on 23 March 1588 and their son was Tage Thott, born in 1580. Upon her husbands death, Sophie Thott managed his property in Eriksholm, during this time, she also became a horticulturalist, in addition to her studies in chemistry and medicine. The gardens she created in Ericksholm were said to be exceptional, Sophie was particularly interested in studying chemistry and medicine according to Paracelsus, in which small doses of poison might serve as strong medicines. She also helped her brother with producing horoscopes, continuing with that until 1597, on 21 July 1587, King Frederick II of Denmark signed a document transferring to Sophia Brahe title of Årup farm in what is now Sweden. During the times she visited at Uranienborg, Sophia Thott met Erik Lange, in 1590, Sophie took 13 visits to Uranienborg, and they became engaged in that year. Lange used up most of his fortune with alchemy experiments, so their marriage was delayed some years while he avoided his debtors, Tycho Brahe wrote the poem Urania Titani during the couples separation, expressed as a letter from his sister Sophia to her fiance in 1594. In 1599, she visited Lange in Hamburg, but they did not marry until 1602 in Eckernförde and they lived in this town for a while in extreme poverty. Sophie wrote a letter to her sister Margrethe Brahe, describing having to wear stockings with holes in them for her wedding. Langes wedding clothes had to be returned to the shop after the wedding. She expressed anger with her family for not accepting her science studies, by 1608, Erik Lange was living in Prague, and he died there in 1613. Sophie Brahe personally financed the restoration of the church, Ivetofta kyrka
6. Stygge Krumpen – He was the brother of Danish marshal Otte Krumpen. With them, the Krumpen family died out, Stygge Krumpen was born the son of Jørgen Krumpen of Skjøtterup and Anne Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz. He was the brother of later marshal Otte Krumpen, in 1505, he started attending the University of Rostock, and took his Masters degree before 1513. In 1514, he was associated with Tranebjerg church, in 1515 he was named secretary of king Christian II of Denmark, and in 1518 he was promised the first priesthood available in Jutland. He was named bishop of the Diocese of Børglum in 1519 alongside his uncle, bishop Niels Stygge. He had the provost of Børglum Abbey expelled and his rights transferred to Niels Stygge and he was active in the uprising against Christian II in 1522-23. Under new king Frederick I of Denmark, Krumpen was credited for Sæby attaining market town rights in 1524, Krumpen actively opposed the Reformation in Denmark, and urged Johann Eck to preach in Denmark. While at Børglum, he sought to enhance his own holdings in numerous ways. Krumpen caused public scandal as he was living in sin with his relative Elsebeth Gyldenstjerne and he accompanied Prince Christian on a trip to Norway in 1529, but was otherwise not a close advisor to the crown. He opposed the ascension of Prince Christian as king in 1533, during the subsequent Counts Feud civil war between the Protestant Christian III and the catholic Christian II, Krumpen could not defend his holdings against the peasant uprising of Skipper Clement. After Christian III won the Counts Feud in 1536, all bishops were dispossessed and jailed. Krumpen was imprisoned at Sønderborg Castle during the time as Christian II. He spent his last years facing a number of legal trials regarding his conduct as a bishop and he was released in 1542 with support from his brother, after swearing allegiance to Christian III. He was granted Asmild Abbey for life in January 1543, and he died on 21 January 1551 and was buried in the family plot at Mariager Abbey. Stygge Krumpen,1936 fictional novel by Thit Jensen Stygge Krumpen - biskop og adelsmand,2008 historical biography by Gert Jensen