Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings and lords of Iran. In Iran the title was used, rather than King in the European sense. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān and this word is commonly confused with the unrelated and distinct Indian surname Shah, which is derived from the Sanskrit Sadhu or Sahu, meaning gentleman. Šāh, or Šāhanšāh to use the term, was the title of the Persian emperors. While the Ottoman Sultans never styled themselves as Shah, but rather Sultan, their male offspring received the title of Şehzade, or prince. The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām, literally King of Kings in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, in Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, King of Kings, equivalent to Emperor. Both terms were often shortened to their roots shah and basileus, in Western languages, Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh.
The term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia, for a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages and he styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu. Iran no longer had a shah after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, from the reign of Ashot III, the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning king of kings. The title padishah was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by other monarchs claiming imperial rank. Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning King, the Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman. Georgian title mepetmepe was inspired by the shahanshah title, however the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shahs kingdom.
This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire and was used by the princes of the Mughal Empire in India. Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur were by birth-right styled Shahzada Mirza Bahadur, though this style could be extended to individual grandsons, other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were merely styled Mirza or Mirza. This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties, for example, the younger sons of the ruling Sikh maharaja of Punjab were styled Shahzada Singh Bahadur. Shahbanu, Persian term using the word shah and the Persian suffix -banu, Empress, in modern times, shahdokht is another term derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -dokht daughter, female descendant, to address the Princess of the imperial households. Shahpur been derived from using the archaic Persian suffix -pur son, male descendant
Islam Shah Suri
Islam Shah Suri was the second ruler of the Sur dynasty which ruled part of India in the mid-16th century. His original name was Jalal Khan and he was the son of Sher Shah Suri. On his fathers death, a meeting of nobles chose Jalal Khan to be successor instead of his elder brother Adil Khan. Jalal Khan was crowned on 26 May 1545 and took the title Islam Shah and he was still worried that his brother would threaten his power and tried to have him captured. But Adil Khan evaded his grasp and raised an army and it marched on Islam Shah while he was at Agra. In the battle Islam Shah came out victorious and Adil Khan fled, the support some of the nobles had given his brother made Islam Shah suspicious and he ruthlessly purged their ranks, strictly subordinating the nobility to the crown. He continued his fathers policies of efficient administration and increased centralisation and he had little opportunity for military campaigning, the fugitive Mughal emperor Humayun, whom his father had overthrown, made one abortive attempt to attack him.
Islam Shah died on 22 November 1554 and he was succeeded by his son Firuz Shah Suri, who was only twelve. Within a few days the boy ruler had been murdered by Sher Shahs nephew Muhammad Mubariz Khan, the incomplete tomb of Islam Shah lies about a kilometer to the North-West of Sher Shahs tomb. Islam Shah Sur, the forerunner of Akbar in reforms and policies
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Muhammad Adil Shah
Muhammad Adil Shah was the fourth ruler of the Sur dynasty, a late medieval Afghan dynasty of northern India. He was the son of Nizam Khan, the brother of the Sultan Sher Shah Suri. Adils sister, Bibi Bai, was married to Islam Shah Suri and his real name was Muhammad Mubariz Khan. He was responsible for the assassination of Firuz Shah Suri, the son of Islam Shah Suri. Then he ascended the throne as the last sultan of the united empire and he appointed Hemu as his Wazir. In 1555, Adils brother in law, Ibrahim Shah Suri of Agra, Adil Shahs army was defeated and he lost the throne of Delhi. Soon, the empire founded by Sher Shah was divided into four parts, as Delhi and Agra came under the rule of Ibrahim Shah Suri, only the territories from the vicinity of Agra to Bihar remained under Adil. Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah already declared independence of Bengal in 1554, but hostility did not end with the division of empire. Ibrahim Shah Suri was defeated by Sikandar Shah Suri at Farah,32 km from Agra, Ibrahim renewed his strife with Adil, but he was defeated by Hemu twice, once near Kalpi and again near Khanua.
He took refuge in the Bayana fort, which was besieged by Hemu, Muhammad Shah of Bengal approached near Kalpi, Adil had to recall Hemu to Kalpi. Muhammad Shah was defeated and killed at Chhapparghatta near Kalpi, Adil captured Bengal and appointed Shahbaz Khan as the Governor. In 1557, Adil was defeated and killed in a battle with the Bengal Sultan Khizr Khan Suri, the son of Muhammad Shah