1556 in literature
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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1556.
- The first printing press in India is introduced by Jesuits at Saint Paul's College, Goa.
- The first written evidence of Yakshagana dance-drama is found on an inscription at the Lakshminarayana Temple, Hosaholalu in India.
- Augustus, Elector of Saxony, establishes a royal state library in Dresden, predecessor of the Saxon State and University Library Dresden.
- Pierre de Ronsard – Les Hymnes
- March 7 – Guillaume du Vair, French lawyer and philosopher (died 1621)
- April 27 – François Béroalde de Verville, French novelist and poet (died 1626)
- August 10 – Philipp Nicolai, German poet and composer (died 1608)
- November 25
- Unknown date – John Paul Nazarius, Italian theologian (died 1645)
- April 26 – Valentin Friedland, German scholar and teacher (born 1490)
- May 7 – Hieronymus Andreae, German printer and publisher (date of birth unknown)
- July 31 – Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish theologian, founder of the Jesuits (born 1491)
- October 21 – Pietro Aretino, Italian satirist (born 1492)
- October 31 – Johannes Sleidanus, Luxembourgeois historian (born 1506)
- November 14 – Giovanni della Casa, Florentine poet (born 1503)
- December 23 – Nicholas Udall, English dramatist (born 1504)
- Unknown dates