Mary I of England
Mary I was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her executions of Protestants led to the posthumous sobriquet Bloody Mary and she was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive to adulthood. Her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547, when Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because of religious differences. On his death their first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, was proclaimed queen, Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England, in 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after her half-brothers short-lived Protestant reign, during her five-year reign, she had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions.
After her death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry, Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London. She was the child of King Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Her mother had many miscarriages, before Marys birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and she was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth. Her godparents included her great-aunt the Countess of Devon, Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIIIs cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Marys confirmation, which was held immediately after the baptism. The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon, in 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Marys governess. Sir John Hussey, Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, in July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals.
By the age of nine, Mary could read and write Latin and she studied French, music and perhaps Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, also, as the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a very fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair. She was ruddy cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father, despite his affection for Mary, Henry was deeply disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, in 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside, presumably in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches. She was given her own based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives normally reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title and she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her fathers court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528
The Munich Residenz is the former royal palace of the Bavarian monarchs of the House of Wittelsbach in the centre of the city of Munich, Germany. The Residenz is the largest city palace in Germany and is open to visitors for its architecture, room decorations. The complex of buildings contains ten courtyards and displays 130 rooms, the three main parts are the Königsbau, the Alte Residenz and the Festsaalbau. A wing of the Festsaalbau contains the Cuvilliés Theatre since the reconstruction of the Residenz after World War II and it houses the Herkulessaal, the primary concert venue for the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. The Byzantine Court Church of All Saints at the east side is facing the Marstall, the building for the former Court Riding School and the royal stables. The first buildings at this site were erected in the year 1385 and were financed by the township of Munich as a sanction for an uprising against Stephen III. The Silver Tower, as the strongest bastion, was situated next to the inner walls protecting the castle against the city.
As a result, they sought to build themselves a shelter impregnable, the gothic foundation walls and the basement vaults of the old castle are the oldest surviving parts of the palace. Finally, after more than four centuries of development, the giant palace had practically replaced a former city quarter with barracks. It assembles the styles of the late Renaissance, as well as of Baroque, with the order of William IV to expand the Neuveste with the so-called Rundstubenbau and to set up the first Court Garden began the history of the Munich Residence as a representative palace. To the history cycle of this garden pavilion belonged once the Battle of Issus of Albrecht Altdorfer. Under Albert V Wilhelm Egkl built next to a hall of the Neuveste an art chamber in the building of the former ducal stables. Since there was not enough space for the collection of sculptures. It had to be built outside the castle, as there was no place in the Neuveste, William V ordered the construction of the Witwenstock for the dowager Duchess Anna and in 1581-1586 the four wings of the Grottenhof.
Around 1590 the construction of the Black Hall was begun to the southeast on the Antiquarium, under direction of Sustris the Erbprinzentrakt, north of the Witwenstock was added. Maximilian I commissioned what is now called the Maximilian Residenz, the west wing of the palace, until the 19th century, it was the only publicly visible facade and it still is preserved. The portals are guarded by two lions and a statue of the Virgin Mary as patroness of Bavaria in a niche between the portals on the west side of the residence complex. Maximilian had rebuilt and connected the existing buildings, in addition, Maximilian I had from 1612 large parts of the south and west wings of the Neuveste with the Silver Tower demolished
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerlands third-most-populous city with about 175,000 inhabitants, located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany. In 2014, the Basel agglomeration was the third largest in Switzerland with a population of 537,100 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland, the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, the city has been a commercial hub and important cultural centre since the Renaissance, and has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in the 20th century. It hosts the oldest university of the Swiss Confederation, There are settlement traces on the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an Oppidum on the site of Basel Minster, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul.
In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the administrative centre. The city of Basel eventually grew around the castle, the name of Basel is derived from the Roman-era toponym Basilia, first recorded in the 3rd century. It is presumably derived from the personal name Basilius, the Old French form Basle was adopted into English, and developed into the modern French Bâle. The Icelandic name Buslaraborg goes back to the 12th century Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan, Basel was incorporated into Germania Superior in AD83. Roman control over the area deteriorated in 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian, the Alamanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled. In a great invasion of AD406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace, from this time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement. The Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, and by the 7th century, based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century.
Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle, at the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870. The city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion of 917, the rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, and as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. Since the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II in 999 till the Reformation, in 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under German Emperor Heinrich II. In 1225–1226, the Bridge over the Rhine was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun, the bridge was largely funded by Basels Jewish community which had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river between Lake Constance and the sea, the Bishop allowed the furriers to found a guild in 1226
Giambattista della Porta
Giambattista della Porta, known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta was an Italian scholar and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation. Giambattista della Porta spent the majority of his life on scientific endeavors and he benefited from an informal education of tutors and visits from renowned scholars. His most famous work, first published in 1558, was entitled Magiae Naturalis, in this book he covered a variety of the subjects he had investigated, including the study of, occult philosophy, alchemy, mathematics and natural philosophy. He was referred to as professor of secrets, Giambattista della Porta was born at Vico Equense, near Naples, to the nobleman Nardo Antonio della Porta. He was the third of four sons, second to survive childhood, having an older brother Gian Vincenzo, Della Porta had a privileged childhood including his education. His father had a thirst for learning, a trait he would pass all of his children. He surrounded himself with distinguished people and entertained the likes of philosophers, poets, the atmosphere of the house resembled an academy for his sons.
The members of the circle of friends stimulated the boys and mentoring them. It is possible that his fathers interest and influence in providing a well-rounded education helped to turn della Porta into the Renaissance man that he was to become. As well as having talents for the sciences and mathematics, all the brothers were interested in the arts. Despite their interest none of them possessed any sort of talent for it and they were all accepted into the Scuola di Pitagora, a highly exclusive academy of musicians. Apparently the pure impressiveness of their intellect was enough to allow three tone-deaf mathematicians into a school for the musically gifted, the status of the family as a symbol of knowledge and intellectual growth surely helped in their acceptance as well. More aware of their social position than the idea that his sons could have professions in science, Nardo Antonio was raising the more as gentlemen. Therefore, the boys struggled with singing, as that was considered an accomplishment of gentlemen.
They were taught to dance, ride, to part and perform well in tournaments and games. The training gave della Porta, at least earlier in his life, a taste for the aspects of his privileged living. This kind of lifestyle, the façade and showmanship involved in presenting ones self carried with Giambattista throughout his life, in 1563, della Porta published De Furtivis Literarum Notis, a work about cryptography. In it he described the first known digraphic substitution cipher, charles J. Mendelsohn commented, He was, in my opinion, the outstanding cryptographer of the Renaissance
15th century in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century. See also, 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, 16th century in literature,1403 – A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, it continues to be a Livery Company in the 21st century, 1403–08 – The Yongle Encyclopedia is written in China. 1408–11 – An Leabhar Breac is probably compiled by Murchadh Ó Cuindlis at Duniry in Ireland, C.1410 – John, Duke of Berry, commissions the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, illustrated by the Limbourg brothers between c.1412 and 1416. 1424 – The first French royal library is transferred by the English regent of France, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford,1425 – At about this date the first Guildhall Library is established in the City of London under the will of Richard Whittington. 1434 – Japanese Noh actor and playwright Zeami Motokiyo is exiled to Sado Island by the Shogun,1443 – King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul as the native alphabet of the Korean language.
It is first described in the Hunminjeongeum published on 9 October 14461444,15 June – Cosimo de Medici founds the Laurentian Library in Florence,1448 – Pope Nicholas V founds the Vatican Library in Rome. 1450 – Johannes Gutenberg has set up his movable type printing press as an operation in Mainz by this date. 14511 August – A manuscript of Dantes Divine Comedy is sold in London,1452 – Completion of the Malatestiana Library in Cesena, the first European public library, in the sense of belonging to the commune and open to all citizens. 1453 – Pageant of Coriolan staged in the piazza of Milan Cathedral,145523 February – Johannes Gutenberg completes printing of the Gutenberg Bible in Mainz, the first major book printed with movable type in the West, using a textualis blackletter typeface. 5 June – French poet François Villon is implicated in a murder, the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in Persia is known to be in existence. 1460 – From about this date, Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, begins to form the Bibliotheca Corviniana,1462,8 November – First known sentence written in the Albanian language, a Formula e pagëzimit by Archbishop Pal Engjëlli.
Soon after this he prints the first known Biblia pauperum,1463,5 January – François Villon is reprieved from hanging in Paris but never heard of again. 146831 May – The Byzantine scholar Cardinal Basilios Bessarion donates his library to the Republic of Venice, the printers Johann and Wendelin of Speyer settle in Venice, their first book published here, Ciceros Epistolae ad familiares, appears in 1469. 1470 Johann Heynlin prints the first book in Paris, the Epistolae Gasparini of Gasparinus de Bergamo, nicolas Jensons edition of Eusebius, published in Venice, is the first book to use a roman type based on the principles of typography rather than manuscript. 1473 First book printed in Hungary, Chronica Hungarorum, the Buda Chronicle, First known printing in Poland, Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474, a wall calendar. 1474 – First book printed in Spain, Obres e trobes en lahors de la Verge María, recuyell of the Historyes of Troye is the first book to be printed in English, by William Caxton in Bruges.
Rashis commentary on the Torah is the first dated book to be printed in Hebrew,147630 January – Constantine Lascariss Erotemata is the first book to be printed entirely in Greek
John Dee was an English mathematician, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and he was an advocate of Englands imperial expansion. Dee straddled the worlds of science and magic just as they were becoming distinguishable, one of the most learned men of his age, he had been invited to lecture on the geometry of Euclid at the University of Paris while still in his early twenties. Dee was an ardent promoter of mathematics and an astronomer, as well as a leading expert in navigation. Simultaneously with these efforts, Dee immersed himself in the worlds of magic, astrology, in his lifetime, Dee amassed one of the largest libraries in England. His high status as a scholar allowed him to play a role in Elizabethan politics and he served as an occasional advisor and tutor to Elizabeth I and nurtured relationships with her ministers Francis Walsingham and William Cecil. Dee tutored and enjoyed patronage relationships with Sir Philip Sidney, his uncle Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and he enjoyed patronage from Sir Christopher Hatton.
Dee was born in Tower Ward, London, to Rowland Dee of Welsh descent and his surname Dee derived from the Welsh du, his grandfather was Bedo Ddu of Nant-y-groes, Pilleth and John retained his connection with the locality. His father Roland was a mercer and gentleman courtier to Henry VIII, John Dee claimed to be a descendant of Rhodri the Great, Prince of Wales and constructed a pedigree showing his descent from Rhodri. Dees family arrived in London in the wake of Henry Tudors coronation as Henry VII, Jane Dee was the daughter of William Wild. Dee attended the Chelmsford Chantry School from 1535 to 1542 and he entered St Johns College, Cambridge, in November 1542, aged 15, graduating BA in 1545 or early 1546. His abilities recognised, he became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. At Trinity, the stage effects he produced for a production of Aristophanes Peace procured him the reputation of being a magician that clung to him through life. In the late 1540s and early 1550s, he travelled in Europe, studying at Louvain and Brussels, in 1552, he met Gerolamo Cardano in London, during their acquaintance they investigated a perpetual motion machine as well as a gem purported to have magical properties.
Rector at Upton-upon-Severn from 1553, Dee was offered a readership in mathematics at Oxford in 1554, in 1555, Dee became a member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, as his father had, through the companys system of patrimony. That same year,1555, he was arrested and charged with calculating for having cast horoscopes of Queen Mary and Princess Elizabeth, Dee appeared in the Star Chamber and exonerated himself, but was turned over to the Catholic Bishop Bonner for religious examination. His strong and lifelong penchant for secrecy perhaps worsening matters, this episode was only the most dramatic in a series of attacks. Clearing his name yet again, he became a close associate of Bonner
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
Albert V was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. He was born in Munich to William IV and Maria Jacobäa of Baden, Albert was educated at Ingolstadt by Catholic teachers. The union was designed to end the rivalry between Austria and Bavaria. In 1550, Albert succeeded his father as duke of Bavaria, Albert was now free to devote himself to the task of establishing Catholic conformity in his dominions. A strict Catholic by upbringing, Albert was a leader of the German Counter-Reformation, the latter took an important part in the events leading up to the Peace of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg. Duke Albert made strenuous efforts to procure for his son, Ernest of Bavaria and these efforts would not pay off until after Alberts death, however, a member of the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria would be Archbishop of Cologne for almost two centuries thereafter. His personal library founded in 1558 has come to the Bavarian State Library in Munich, in 1552, Albert commissioned an inventory of the jewelry which he and his wife owned.
The resulting manuscript, still held by the Bavarian State Library, was the Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria, in 1559 Albert founded the Paedagogium in Munich. To house his antiquities he commissioned the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz, Albert appointed Orlando di Lasso to a court post and patronized many other artists, this led to a huge burden of debts. Albert died in 1579 in Munich and was succeeded by his son William and he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. Hofkleiderbuch des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508–1551, at the Bavarian State Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Samuel Macauley, ed. article name needed. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge and New York and Wagnalls
Robert Greene (dramatist)
He is said to have been born in Norwich. He attended Cambridge, receiving a BA in 1580, and an M. A. in 1583 before moving to London, Greene was prolific and published in many genres including romances and autobiography. According to Richardson, The chief problem in compiling a biography of Robert Greene is the name, Robert must have been almost the most popular Elizabethan Christian name and Greene is no unusual surname. Newcomb states that Robert Greene, was probably the Robert Greene, son of Robert Greene, baptized on 11 July 1558 at St Georges, Norwich. Greene described himself as from Norwich on his title-pages, however, in his will proved in 1591, the innkeeper did not mention a son Robert, although he may have disinherited that son. Both the Norwich cordwainer turned innkeeper and the Norwich saddler left wills, proved in 1591 and 1596 respectively, Greene is thought to have attended the Norwich Grammar School, although this cannot be confirmed as enrolment documents for the relevant years are lost.
He apparently transferred to Clare College for his 1583 MA, where he placed 5th out of 12 students in his college, from my Studie in Clarehall the vii. According to Newcomb, Other events of youth must be derived from autobiographical remarks that may not be reliable. In The Repentance Greene claimed to have married a daughter, whom he abandoned after having had a child by her and spent her dowry, after which she went to Lincolnshire. In Four Letters, Gabriel Harvey prints a letter written by Greene to his wife in which he addresses her as Doll. However xtensive searches of London and Norwich records by successive biographers have failed finally to locate the record of Greenes marriage, after his move to London Greene published over twenty-five works in prose in a variety of genres, becoming Englands first celebrity author. In 1588 he was granted an MA from Oxford University, almost certainly a courtesy degree, thereafter the title pages of some of his published works bore the phrase Utruisq.
Academiae in Artibus Magister, Master of Arts in both Universities, Harvey attributed Greenes demise to a surfeit of pickle herring and Rhenish wine, and claimed he had been buried in the new churchyard near Bedlam on 4 September. No record of Greenes burial has been found, no record of Greenes son by his wife has been found, however in Four Letters Gabriel Harvey claimed that Greene kept a mistress, the sister of a criminal known as Cutting Ball hanged at Tyburn. Harvey described her as a sorry ragged quean of whom had his base son Infortunatus Greene, according to Newcomb, a Fortunatus Greene was buried at Shoreditch on 12 August 1593, whose folk-tale name might lie behind Harveys jest. According to Newcomb works evince an inexhaustible linguistic facility, grounded in wide reading in the classics, Greenes literary career began with the publication of a long romance, entered in the Stationers Register on 3 October 1580. Greenes romances were written in a highly wrought style which reached its highest level in Pandosto, short poems and songs incorporated in some of the romances attest to his ability as a lyric poet.
One song from Menaphon, Weep not my wanton, smile upon my knee, enjoyed immense success, according to Newcomb, in his prose works Greene himself built his persona around a myth of prodigal decline that cannot be taken at face value
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Justus Menius was a German Lutheran pastor, whose name is Latinized from Jost or Just Menig. Menius was born in Fulda to poor but respectable parents, entering the University of Erfurt in 1514, he received his bachelors degree in 1515 and his masters degree in 1516. At this time, in association with the keen humanists Conrad Mutian, Crotus Rubeanus, moving to Wittenberg in 1519, he became evangelical under the teaching of Philipp Melanchthon and the preaching of Martin Luther. After travel in Italy Menius was appointed preacher at Wittenberg. Here he published his commentary on Acts and married and he resigned his charge and opened a school at Erfurt, but the town council insisted on his resuming his ministry, appointing him preacher in St Thomas, Erfurt. He worked in conjunction with Luthers friend, John Lange, and was opposed by the Franciscans under Conrad Kling, Menius left for Gotha, resumed teaching, and enjoyed the friendship of Friedrich Myconius. In 1529 he brought out his Oeconomia christiana with a dedication to Duchess Sybil of Saxony, meniuss tractate, written in concert with Myconius, controverting Der Wiedertaufer Lehre und Geheimniss was prefaced by Luther.
The reversion to the Roman communion of his old friend Crotus led to his mordant Responsio amici to the Apologia of Crotus. He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg, the Concordia at Wittenberg, the Convention at Schmalkalden, and his tractate against the permission of bigamy in the case of Philip of Hesse was not allowed to be printed. In 1542 Menius moved to Mühlhausen, being appointed by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, on the death of Myconius he was entrusted with the oversight of Gotha, in addition to that of Eisenach, to Gotha he returned in 1547. The remainder of his life was not happy and he lost favor with John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, fell into bad health, was deposed from his offices, and was disappointed in his hopes of being reinstated, after the colloquy at Eisenach. Menius was twice married, and had sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg. G. L. Schmidt gives a bibliography of the numerous writings of Menius. His Oeconomia was reprinted in 1855, G. L.
Schmidt, Justus Menius, der Reformator Thüringens, Wagenmann, in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, G. Kawerau, in Haucks Realencyklopadie. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
1550s in architecture
1550–1554 - Church of SantAndrea in Via Flaminia, designed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, the first church of the Italian Renaissance to have an elliptical dome. 1552–1554 - Design and construction of Villa Cornaro in the Veneto by Palladio,1552 - Work begins on Fort Saint Elmo on Malta. 1554 - Work begins on Saint Basils Cathedral in Moscow, C.1555 - Design and construction of monastery of Santiago Apóstol and its basilica church in Cuilapan de Guerrero, Mexico, by Antonio de Barbosa, begins. 1558 - Sforza Chapel in Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome,1559 - Work begins on the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, designed by Vignola. 1559 - Tekkiye Mosque in Damascus is completed,1550, April 18 - Alessandro Pieroni, Italian mannerist painter and architect c.1550 - Vittorio Cassar, Maltese architect 1556 - Carlo Maderno, Ticinese-born baroque architect 1554 - Sebastiano Serlio