1571 in science
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- François Viète begins publication of Francisci Vietœi universalium inspectionum ad canonem mathematicum liber singularis containing many trigonometric tables and formulas on the sine and cosine, and novel in using a decimal notation.
- Peder Sørensen publishes Idea medicinæ philosophicæ in Basel, asserting the superiority of the ideas of Paracelsus to those of Galen.
- 1571 or 1572 – Jacques Besson publishes his popular comprehensive treatise on machines, Theatrum Instrumentorum.
- The first occurrence of the word theodolite is found in the surveying textbook A geometric practice named Pantometria by Leonard Digges, published posthumously by his son, Thomas.
- December 9 – Metius, Dutch mathematician (died 1635)
- December 27 – Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (died 1630)
- Willem Blaeu, Dutch cartographer (died 1638)
- Frederick de Houtman, Dutch explorer (died 1627)
- Daumas, Maurice (1989). Scientific Instruments of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries and Their Makers. London: Portman. ISBN 978-0-7134-0727-3.
- Lohuizen, J. Van. "Houtman, Frederik de (1571–1627)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 3 April 2018.