SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sustainable wildlife enterprise

A sustainable wildlife enterprise is a farming system that incorporates sustainable use of wildlife to promote conservation. In Australia, landholders work together across boundaries to sustainably harvest or make use of occurring wildlife populations such as the kangaroo. Important to the concept is that biodiversity and environmental benefit occurs via alternative land uses. Attaching a value to native resources through commercial development has the potential to provide alternative sources of income in areas where traditional systems are no longer as profitable or environmentally sustainable; the Sustainable Wildlife Enterprise system enables farmers to realise the financial value of native wildlife such as the kangaroo and encourages them to manage their land that supports the source of the income without lowering total farm profitability – hence contributing to habitat and biodiversity conservation. The Sustainable Wildlife Enterprise system has been developed in Australia but is based on world-wide experiences.

Until primary production systems can put a value on habitat and conservation areas there will be more and more species loss. Conventional farming techniques have seen broad-scale environmental degradation in Australia’s rangelands during droughts where soil fertility and low rainfall limit natural production capacity. Where native wildlife and resources are given a value and managed sustainably, there is a proven benefit for biodiversity and habitat. Sustainable Wildlife Enterprises in Australia are based on wildlife management experiences from countries such as South Africa and Scotland. In South Africa - the commercial value of wildlife to private landholders makes the future of wildlife in that country far more secure than it is anywhere else on that continent. See Wildlife of South Africa. In Scotland, deer stalking and red grouse hunting occurs sustainably because hunting licences are owned by the landholder; this provides incentives to the landholder to protect their source of income and the habitat which the animals live on.

Native species adapted to Australia's unique environment allow them to survive the climatic extremes and thrive with little impact to the environment. Kangaroos impact less on the environment than hoofed animals and emit less methane. There is a sustainable kangaroo harvesting industry in place in Australia. See the Kangaroo industry. Landholders do not control or receive benefit from harvest of kangaroos on their land other than reduction of grazing pressure under this system. A pilot project is being run in Central-south Queensland; the cooperative owns and operates chiller boxes, takes kangaroos from harvester properties of landholder members. Through improved information and training, quality of kangaroo products can be ensured through traceback and temperature tracking systems; the trained operatives within the cooperative guarantee humane treatment of the animals. The cooperative assess kangaroo populations and develop and implement best-practice quality standards, which include standards of animal selection, field dressing, transport and traceback from processors.

Landholders benefit by the amount of kangaroo harvested on their land, as a proportion of their investment and involvement. There are a number of ways these cooperatives can be set up and the profits shared. Products from SWEs need to have a market edge so landholders and harvesters can both benefit; the cooperatives need to prove biodiversity and environmental benefit, reduced carbon emissions, humane treatment of the animals, transparent operations and the highest quality. Landholders benefit from better management of total grazing pressure and profits from sale of kangaroo products. Harvesters can benefit by gaining exclusive secure rights to properties and regular income, reward for implementing higher professional standards and access to training and development, information, share in profits produced by ensuring market edge products. Meat processors can benefit with described high quality products. For Landcare Australia groups and regional/catchment natural resource management bodies, the model offers options to meet their objectives of management of total grazing pressure), feral animals and weeds, diversification of incomes and socio-economic resilience.

The development of the Australian carbon market makes the prospect of profitable use of Australian wildlife within farming systems more viable. Methane from the foregut of ruminant livestock cattle and sheep constitutes 11% of Australia’s total greenhouse gas emissions. Kangaroos, on the other hand, have less impact on the environment and are non-ruminant forestomach fermenters that produce negligible amounts of methane; as community groups call for reduced consumption of ruminant red meat to reduce carbon emissions, kangaroo meat consumption is a healthy, environmentally friendly alternative. Providing consumers with a red meat alternative, associated with far lower methane emissions and minimal soil damage is an important environmental outcome Where kangaroo production replaces average sheep/cattle meat production, carbon credits can be earned. In the jargon of the carbon trade, sustainable kangaroo use in lieu of sheep/cattle provides landholders the ability to prove additionality and stop market leakage in protein production.

There are considerable carbon credit potentials in soil and vegetation as a result of managing the landscape for native wildlife. Kangaroo industry Kangaroo Kangaroo meat Maranoa, Queensland

The Killing (Danish TV series)

The Killing is a Danish police procedural drama television series created by Søren Sveistrup and produced by DR in co-production with ZDF Enterprises. It was first broadcast on the Danish national television channel DR1 on 7 January 2007, has since been transmitted in many other countries worldwide; the series revolves around Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Each series follows a murder case day-by-day; each fifty-minute episode covers twenty-four hours of the investigation. The series is noted for its plot twists, season-long storylines, dark tone and for giving equal emphasis to the stories of the murdered victim's family and the effect in political circles alongside the police investigation, it has been singled out for the photography of its Danish setting, for the acting ability of its cast. The Killing has proved to be an international hit—garnering significant critical acclaim—particularly in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, receiving numerous awards and nominations including a BAFTA Award and an International Emmy.

It has become something of a cult show. Novelizations of each series have been published by Macmillan. In 2011, a US remake was produced by the American cable network AMC. Søren Sveistrup, series creator and head writer, worked with lead actress Sofie Gråbøl throughout the writing process to develop the character of Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Gråbøl, in particular, became eager to defend her character. Gråbøl had a history of playing demonstrative characters on Danish television—she had worked with Sveistrup before on the TV-series Nikolaj og Julie—he approached her direct to play the part of Sarah Lund before work on the script began. Despite her insistence that she wanted to play an "isolated person unable to communicate" Gråbøl found it difficult to strike the right balance for the emotionally-distant Lund and realised that the only people she knew, who were like the character, were men; as a result, she began "acting like a man". During filming of the first series, Sveistrup refused to reveal the identity of the murderer or specific plot points to members of the cast, including Sofie Gråbøl.

The actors would receive the scripts only on an episode-by-episode basis just moments before shooting was scheduled to begin. Only Gråbøl was told; the first series consists of 20 fifty-minutes episodes, which follow the police investigation into the murder of a young woman from its commencement on 3 November to its conclusion on 22 November. The first ten episodes were shown on DR1 each Sunday from early January to the middle of March 2007 and the intention was to show the remaining ten episodes in January–March 2008. Detective Chief Inspector Sarah Lund is on her last day with the Copenhagen police force. Everything changes when 19-year-old Nanna Birk Larsen is found brutally murdered. Sarah heads the investigation and is teamed up with her replacement, Detective Inspector Jan Meyer. Troels Hartmann, a politician, is in the midst of a hard-fought mayoral campaign when evidence links him to the murder; the girl's family and friends struggle. Over a span of 20 days suspect upon suspect is sought out as violence and political pressures cast their shadows over the hunt for the killer.

Forbrydelsen II is set two years and consists of ten episodes. It aired in Denmark between 27 September and 29 November 2009. Episodes were screened eleven days on Thursdays on Norwegian NRK1, it was shown on German TV channel ZDF and on Swedish SVT in the autumn of 2010. In the United Kingdom, it was shown on BBC Four, starting from 19 November 2011, following the success of the first series, on the Belgian channel, starting on 25 November 2011, in Australia on SBS Two, starting from 21 March 2012; the Region 2 DVD with English subtitles was released on 19 December 2011. Lund, now demoted to the border guard, is called back to Copenhagen to help in solving the murder of Anne Dragsholm, a military adviser found murdered in Ryvangen Memorial Park. Lund suspects that the murder is not as straightforward as it seems, despite the forced confession of Dragsholm's husband. Meanwhile, Thomas Buch, the newly appointed Minister of Justice, suspects that his predecessor was involved in the cover-up of a massacre of Afghan civilians by Danish soldiers and that this incident is connected with the murder.

Lund is about to be discharged from the case when a second killing, that of a Danish military veteran, leads to fears that Islamic extremists are involved. Jens Peter Raben, a sectioned war veteran, knew both victims and tells his story of the execution of an Afghan family by a special forces officer named "Perk". Raben escapes, two other members of the unit are murdered. Suspicion falls on senior military officers, including Colonel Jarnvig. Buch and his secretarial team uncover further evidence of the cover-up, but the cabinet pressures him to continue pinning the murders on Muslims in order to assure the passage of an anti-terrorism bill. Raben takes refuge in a church presided over by a former army chaplain, who tries to convince him to give himself up and stop investigating the killings. Lund pursues the perpetrator, she arranges for the exhumation of Perk's body. When Lund and her partner, Inspector Ulrik Strange, catch up with Raben, he calls out Perk's name before Strange shoots him