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Gauliga Pommern

The Gauliga Pommern was the highest football league in the Prussian province of Pomerania from 1933 to 1945. Shortly after the formation of the league, the Nazis reorganised the administrative regions in Germany, the Gau Pomerania replaced the province of Pomerania; the league was introduced by the Nazi Sports Office in 1933, after the Nazi takeover of power in Germany. It replaced the Bezirksligas and Oberligas as the highest level of play in German football competitions; the Gauliga Pommern was established with all from the province of Pomerania. The clubs from the region had, until the introduction of the Gauliga, no highest, province-wide league; the Pomeranian champion played in a finals round with the league winners of the Berlin-Brandenburg region. In its first season, the league had fourteen clubs in two groups of seven, playing each other within their group once at home and once away; the league winners played a home-and-away final and the Pomeranian champion qualified for the German championship.

The bottom team in each group was relegated. The two groups were organised geographically, there was a western and an eastern group; the league remained unchanged until 1937, when it was reorganised in a single division of ten clubs with the bottom two clubs being relegated. This system was in place for the 1938-39 season. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, league football in Pomerania was restricted due to the region bordering Poland a war zone. Only nine clubs took part in the Gauliga season of 1939-40, staged in two groups, one of five and one of four teams. After 1940, the league was dominated by military teams, like LSV Pütnitz, LSV standing for Luftwaffen Sport Verein. After the defeat of Poland, football in Pomerania returned to normal but the Gauliga remained divided in two groups with the western group consisting of eight clubs and the eastern of six; the next three seasons, 1941–44, both groups had a strength of six clubs. In its last completed season, 1943–44, out of twelve clubs in the league, five belonged to the German Luftwaffe, one to the Kriegsmarine and one to the Heer.

The imminent collapse of Nazi Germany in 1945 gravely affected all Gauligas and football in Pomerania was split into six regional groups. However, none of them played more than a few games before the arrival of the Red Army ended all competitions. With the end of the Nazi era, the Gauligas ceased to exist and the province of Pommern found itself in the Soviet occupation zone. While Western Pomerania became part of the new East Germany, the city of Stettin and all of the province east of the river Oder were handed to Poland as a compensation for its eastern territories, lost to the Soviet Union; the German population in the region however, was completely expelled. In the part remaining with Germany, the DDR-Oberliga was formed as the highest level of play, while the Polish areas became part of the Polish football league system. All German clubs in this region were dissolved after the war; the fourteen founding members were: Western Group: Stettiner SC, champion of Pommern in 1932-33 Polizei SV Stettin SC Preußen Stettin VfL Stettin VfB Stettin Greifswalder SC Viktoria Stralsund Eastern Group: Viktoria Stolp SV Preußen Köslin Heeres SV Hubertus Kolberg SV Viktoria Kolberg SV Sturm Lauenburg SV Germania Stolp SV Phönix Köslin The winners and runners-up of the league: The complete list of all clubs participating in the league: Die deutschen Gauligen 1933-45 - Heft 1-3 Tables of the Gauligas 1933-45, publisher: DSFS Kicker Almanach, The yearbook on German football from Bundesliga to Oberliga, since 1937, published by the Kicker Sports Magazine The Gauligas Das Deutsche Fussball Archiv Germany - Championships 1902-1945 at

All Through the Night: Julie London Sings the Choicest of Cole Porter

All Through the Night: Julie London Sings the Choicest of Cole Porter is an LP album by Julie London, released by Liberty Records under catalog number LRP-3434 as a monophonic recording and catalog number LST-7434 in stereo in 1965. She was accompanied by the Bud Shank Quintet. Julie London - vocals Bud Shank - alto saxophone, flute Joe Pass - guitar Monty Budwig - bass Russ Freeman - piano, arrangements Colin Bailey - drums All Through the Night: Julie London Sings the Choicest of Cole Porter at AllMusic All Through the Night: Julie London Sings the Choicest of Cole Porter on Rate Your Music site

Three Steps in the Dark

Three Steps in the Dark is a 1953 British B-movie whodunit directed by Daniel Birt and starring Greta Gynt and Hugh Sinclair. A rich but disliked elderly man invites his relatives to a family reunion at his home. Once the gathering is complete, he announces enigmatically that he intends to change his will before he dies. Before he can do this, he is murdered, his niece, a detective story writer, has to put her theories into practice by solving a real-life murder mystery. Greta Gynt as Sophie Burgoyne Hugh Sinclair as Philip Burgoyne Sarah Lawson as Dorothy Elwyn Brook-Jones as Wilbraham John Van Eyssen as Henry Burgoyne Nicholas Hannen as Arnold Burgoyne Hélène Cordet as Esme Alastair Hunter as Inspector Forbes Katie Johnson as Mrs. Riddle Three Steps in the Dark appears to have been a programmer following the standard whodunit template, with Today's Cinema offering the analysis: "The film has a measure of well tried appeal in the matter of'spotting the killer' and in anticipating the surprise revelation of his identity in the climax.

There is the usual touch of romance to complete the formula." There is no indication that the film was shown publicly again in cinemas or on television following its initial run. The British Film Institute included the film on its "75 Most Wanted" list of missing British feature films, due in large part to interest from film historians in Birt's brief directorial career, cut short by his death at the age of 47 in 1955; the National Film and Sound Archive in Australia subsequently informed the BFI. BFI 75 Most Wanted entry, with extensive notes Three Steps in the Dark on IMDb

Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder. Communications satellites are used for television, radio and military applications. There are about 2,000 communications satellites in Earth's orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Many are in geostationary orbit 22,236 miles above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it; the high frequency radio waves used for telecommunications links travel by line of sight and so are obstructed by the curve of the Earth. The purpose of communications satellites is to relay the signal around the curve of the Earth allowing communication between separated geographical points. Communications satellites use a wide range of microwave frequencies. To avoid signal interference, international organizations have regulations for which frequency ranges or "bands" certain organizations are allowed to use.

This allocation of bands minimizes the risk of signal interference. The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, along with Vahid K. Sanadi building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. In October 1945, Clarke published an article titled "Extraterrestrial Relays" in the British magazine Wireless World; the article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. Thus, Arthur C. Clarke is quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite and the term'Clarke Belt' employed as a description of the orbit. Decades a project named Communication Moon Relay was a telecommunication project carried out by the United States Navy, its objective was to develop a secure and reliable method of wireless communication by using the Moon as a passive reflector and a natural communications satellite. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1. Put into orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, it was equipped with an on-board radio-transmitter that worked on two frequencies: 20.005 and 40.002 MHz.

Sputnik 1 was launched as a major step in the exploration of rocket development. However, it was not placed in orbit for the purpose of sending data from one point on earth to another; the first satellite to relay communications was an intended lunar probe. Though the spacecraft only made it about halfway to the moon, it flew high enough to carry out the proof of concept relay of telemetry across the world, first from Cape Canaveral to Manchester, England; the first satellite purpose-built to relay communications was NASA's Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Courier 1B, built by Philco, launched in 1960, was the world's first active repeater satellite; the first artificial satellite used to further advances in global communications was a balloon named Echo 1. Echo 1 was the world's first artificial communications satellite capable of relaying signals to other points on Earth.

It soared 1,600 kilometres above the planet after its Aug. 12, 1960 launch, yet relied on humanity's oldest flight technology — ballooning. Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a 30-metre aluminized PET film balloon that served as a passive reflector for radio communications; the world's first inflatable satellite — or "satelloon", as they were informally known — helped lay the foundation of today's satellite communications. The idea behind a communications satellite is simple: Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. Echo 1 accomplished this by serving as an enormous mirror, 10 stories tall, that could be used to reflect communications signals. There are two major classes of communications satellites and active. Passive satellites only reflect the signal coming from the source, toward the direction of the receiver. With passive satellites, the reflected signal is not amplified at the satellite, only a small amount of the transmitted energy reaches the receiver. Since the satellite is so far above Earth, the radio signal is attenuated due to free-space path loss, so the signal received on Earth is very weak.

Active satellites, on the other hand, amplify the received signal before retransmitting it to the receiver on the ground. Passive satellites are little used now. Telstar was the second direct relay communications satellite. Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, the French National PTT to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, in the first sponsored space launch. Relay 1 was launched on December 13, 1962, it became the first satellite to transmit across the Pacific Ocean on November 22, 1963. An immediate antecedent of the geostationary satellites was the Hughes Aircraft Company's Syncom 2, launched on July 26, 1963. Syncom 2 was the first communications satellite in a geosynchronous orbit, it revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion, special equipment was needed to track it. Its successor, Syncom 3 was the first geostationary communications satellite.


List of Galway people

This is a list of people from Galway, city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, Baron de Tollendal Margaret Athy, founder of St. Augustine's Convent, Galway Nora Barnacle, wife of James Joyce Francis Barrett, professional boxer Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt Ken Bruen, author Áine Brady Sister Mary Bonaventure Browne, Poor Clares nun and historian Peadar de Burca, playwright, comedian Robert Malachy Burke, Christian Socialist development worker Ulick Burke Ciarán Cannon Eamon Casey, ex-Roman Catholic bishop J. J. Clancy, MP Catherine Connolly Paul Connaughton Snr Paul Connaughton Jnr Anthony Daly Patrick D'Arcy and Confederate Ireland leader Patrick Deeley, poet and children's writer Richard Donovan, long distance runner Anthony Duane Luke Duffy, trade unionist. Eamon Gilmore Julian Gough and former lead singer of Toasted Heretic Lady Gregory Noel Grealish James Hardiman Frank Harris Michael D. Higgins, politician Rita Ann Higgins Dolores Keane, musician Cáit Keane Colm Keaveney Richard Kirwan Tom Kitt Michael P. Kitt Seán Kyne Gerard Lally Graham Lee, jockey Tony Lundon, pop singer Angela Lynch Patrick Lynch, Roman Catholic bishop of Charleston, South Carolina Patrick Lynch, Irish emigrant to Argentina.