1576 in music
- Pierre-Francisque Caroubel relocated to Paris.
- Carolus Luython becomes court organist and composer to Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, at Vienna.
1. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor – Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg, Rudolf was born in Vienna on 18 July 1552. Rudolf spent eight years, from age 11 to 19, in Spain. Rudolf would remain for the rest of his reserved, secretive. He suffered from bouts of melancholy, which was common in the Habsburg line. These became worse with age, and were manifested by a withdrawal from the world, like his contemporary, Elizabeth I of England, Rudolf dangled himself as a prize in a string of diplomatic negotiations for marriages, but never in fact married. It has been proposed by A. L. Rowse that he was homosexual, during his periods of self-imposed isolation, Rudolf reportedly had affairs with his court chamberlain, Wolfgang von Rumpf, and a series of valets. One of these, Philip Lang, ruled him for years and was hated by those seeking favour with the emperor, in addition, Rudolf was known to have had a succession of affairs with women, some of whom claimed to have been impregnated by him. He had several children with his mistress Catherina Strada. Their eldest son, Don Julius Caesar dAustria, was born between 1584 and 1586 and received an education and opportunities for political and social prominence from his father. In 1607, Rudolf sent Julius to live at Český Krumlov in Bohemia castle, Julius lived at Český Krumlov when in 1608 he reportedly abused and murdered the daughter of a local barber, who had been living in the castle, and then disfigured her body. Rudolf condemned his sons act and suggested that he should be imprisoned for the rest of his life, however, Julius died in 1609 after showing signs of schizophrenia, refusing to bathe, and living in squalor, his death was apparently caused by an ulcer that ruptured. Many artworks commissioned by Rudolf are unusually erotic, the emperor was the subject of a whispering campaign by his enemies in his family and the Catholic Church in the years before he was deposed. Sexual allegations may well have formed a part of the campaign against him, historians have traditionally blamed Rudolfs preoccupation with the arts, occult sciences, and other personal interests as the reason for the political disasters of his reign. Although raised in his uncles Catholic court in Spain, Rudolf was tolerant of Protestantism and he largely withdrew from Catholic observances, even in death denying last sacramental rites. He had little attachment to Protestants either, except as counter-weight to repressive Papal policies and he put his primary support behind conciliarists, irenicists, and humanists. His conflict with the Ottoman Empire was the cause of his undoing. Unwilling to compromise with the Turks, and stubbornly determined that he could all of Christendom with a new Crusade, he started a long
2. 1570s in architecture – 1570–1575 - Palazzo Barbaran da Porto in Vicenza, designed by Andrea Palladio, is built. 1571 - Buildings begun in 1568 are completed, The Green Gate in Gdańsk, the Hall of Antiquities in the Munich Residenz, designed by Wilhelm Egkl and Jacopo Strada. 1571–1572 - Loggia of Palazzo del Capitaniato in Vicenza, designed by Palladio, is built, C.1572 - Completion of work at Villa Serego, Santa Sofia di Pedemonte in the province of Verona, designed by Palladio. 1574 - The Selimiye Mosque, designed by Mimar Sinan and begun in 1568, is completed,1576 - The Pagoda of Cishou Temple in the suburbs of Beijing is completed. 1576–1577 - Design for church of Il Redentore on Giudecca in Venice commissioned from Palladio,1579 - Nonsuch House erected on London Bridge. Fatehpur Sikri in the Mughal Empire is completed,1570 - Andrea Palladio publishes I Quattro Libri dellArchitettura. 1578 - Giacomo della Porta builds a fountain in front of the Pantheon, Rome
3. Hans Sachs – Hans Sachs was a German Meistersinger, poet, playwright, and shoemaker. Hans Sachs was born in Nuremberg, as a child he attended a singing school that was held in the church of Nuremberg. This helped to awaken in him a taste for poetry and music and he attended Latin school in Nuremberg. When he was 14 he took up an apprenticeship as a shoemaker, after the apprenticeship, at age 17, he was a journeyman and set out on his Wanderjahre, that is, travelling about with companions and students. Over several years he worked at his craft in many towns, including Regensburg, Passau, Salzburg, Munich, Osnabrück, Lübeck, and Leipzig. In 1513 he reached the town of Wels in Austria. The Emperor Maximilian I chanced to pass through town with his dazzling retinue. The prince placed him in the halls of the palace of Insbruck, later Hans Sachs quit the court and went to Schatz and Munich. In the same year, he took up a kind of apprenticeship to become a mastersinger at Munich, lienhard Nunnenbeck, a linen weaver, was his master. In 1516 he settled in Nuremberg and stayed there for the rest of his life, on 1 September 1519 he married Kunigunde Creutzer. He married again on 2 September 1561, this time to the young widow Barbara Harscher, in spite of this, his advocacy of the new faith earned him a reproof from the town council of Nuremberg, and he was forbidden to publish any more “pamphlets or rhymes”. It was not long, however, before the council itself openly threw in its lot with the Reformation and he wrote over 6000 pieces of various kinds. Exact numbers vary widely in literature, mainly because it is not always clear if a piece is an independent work or part of a larger work. Also, certain works may be put in different categories by different authors and his productivity is especially remarkable because he kept working as a shoemaker throughout his life. His mastersongs were not published, being intended solely for the use of the Nuremberg Meistersinger school and his fame rests mainly on the “spoken poems” which include his dramatic writings. His “tragedies” and “comedies” are, however, little more than stories told in dialogue, Sachs had little idea of the essentials of dramatic construction or the nature of dramatic action. The subjects are drawn from the most varied sources, but particularly the Bible, the classics and he succeeds best in the short anecdotal Fastnachtsspiel or Shrovetide play, where characterisation and humorous situation are of more importance than dramatic form or construction. Some of his farces have been played on the modern stage, among these are, Der fahrende Schüler im Paradies Das Wildbad Das heiss Eisen Der Bauer im Fegefeuer Hans Sachs is the subject of an opera by Albert Lortzing
4. Thomas Weelkes – Thomas Weelkes was an English composer and organist. He became organist of Winchester College in 1598, moving to Chichester Cathedral and his works are chiefly vocal, and include madrigals, anthems and services. Weelkes was baptised in the village church of Elsted near Chichester in West Sussex on 25 October 1576. It has been suggested that his father was John Weeke, rector of Elsted, early in his life he was in service at the house of the courtier Edward Darcye. At the end of 1598, probably aged 22, Weelkes was appointed organist at Winchester College and his remuneration included board and lodging. During his Winchester period, Weelkes composed a further two volumes of madrigals and he was also given a lay clerkship at the Cathedral, being paid £15 2s 4d annually alongside his board, lodging and other amenities. The following year he married Elizabeth Sandham, from a local family. They had three children and it was rumoured that Elizabeth was already pregnant at the time of the marriage, while Weelkes was there the Choir of Chichester Cathedral was often in trouble with the authorities for poor behaviour. Weelkes appears to have become an alcoholic, as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography puts it, he was not the only disorderly member of the cathedral establishment, though in due course he would become its most celebrated. In 1616 he was reported to the Bishop for being ‘noted and famed for a comon drunckard, the Dean and Chapter dismissed him for being drunk at the organ and using bad language during divine service. Thomas Weelkes was, by time, reinstated at Chichester Cathedral. He died in London in 1623, in the house of a friend, Weelkes has a memorial stone in Chichester Cathedral. Thomas Weelkes is best known for his music, especially his madrigals. Weelkes wrote more Anglican services than any other composer of the time. Many of his anthems are verse anthems, which would have suited the small forces available at Chichester Cathedral and it has been suggested that larger-scale pieces were intended for the Chapel Royal. A number of Weelkess church anthems were included in the Oxford Book of Tudor Anthems in 1978, only a small amount of instrumental music was written by Weelkes, and it is rarely performed. His consort music is sombre in tone, contrasting with the often gleeful madrigals, both men were interested in word painting. Weelkes madrigals are very chromatic and use varied organic counterpoint and unconventional rhythm in their construction, Weelkes was friends with the madrigalist Thomas Morley who died in 1602, when Weelkes was in his mid-twenties
5. Esteban Daza – Esteban Daza was a Spanish composer and vihuelist of the Renaissance. He was one of the last major vihuelists of the 16th century, Daza came from a middle class family, and was the eldest of fourteen children. He studied at the University of Valladolid, where he graduated probably in the early 1560s, there is no evidence that he ever practised a profession, he was able to survive on income from his familys investments. As revealed by the research of John Griffiths, he lived in his parents home until at least the time of his fathers death 1569, although probably until long after the publication of his vihuela music. The last documents that mention in the early 1590s indicate that he was living outside the city wall of Valladolid in a owned by his brother Baltasar. El Parnaso is the only book of music published by Daza. It was printed in 1576 in Valladolid, and contains works for solo vihuela and for vihuela, the full title of the work is Libro de música de cifras para vihuela, intitulado El Parnaso. Dazas fantasias have been edited in modern notation by John Griffiths, John Griffiths, Los dos renacimientos de la vihuela John Griffiths, Daza, Esteban, Grove Music Online. John Griffiths, Esteban Daza, A gentleman musician in Renaissance Spain, Early Music 22, recent Researches in Music of the Renaissance,54