Ivan Fyodorov (printer)
In those times Russians still did not have hereditary surnames, but used patronymics or nicknames, which were not stable. In his first book Apostolos he called himself in typical Russian style Ivan Fedorov that is Ivan, in his other famous book Ostrog Bible he called himself in both Church Slavonic and Greek as Ivan, son of Feоdor, a printer from Moscow. In the Greek version there was from Great Russia instead of from Moscow, but when he was living for a long time in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he adopted a Polish style patronymic surname and added a nickname indicating his origin. In his Latin documents he signed Johannes Theodori Moscus, or Ioannes Fedorowicz Moschus, typographus Græcus et Sclavonicus, as a result of the dialectical replacement of consonant /f/ with /x~xw/ in East Slavic the first letter F was sometimes changed, so the patronymic became Chwedorowicz or Chodorowicz. In his Slavonic books he signed Ioann Fedorovich, and added a nickname a Muscovite printer or just simply a Muscovite, neither his place nor his date of birth are known.
No subsequent researchers have accepted that other than Nemirovsky, who agreed only with the possibility of adoption. Fyodorov graduated from Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland in 1532 with a bachelors degree, in 1564–5 Fedorov accepted an appointment as a deacon in the church of Saint Nicolas in the Moscow Kremlin. Together with Pyotr Timofeev from Mstislavl, i. e. Mstislavets he established the Moscow Print Yard, the printers were received by the Great Lithuanian Hetman Hrehory Chodkiewicz at his estate in Zabłudów, where they published Yevangeliye uchitel’noye and Psaltir’. He moved to Lviv in 1572 and resumed his work as a printer the following year at the Saint Onuphrius Monastery. In 1574 Fyodorov, with the help of his son and Hryn Ivanovych of Zabłudów published the edition of the Apostolos, with an autobiographical epilogue. Fyodorov returned to Lviv after a quarrel with Prince Konstantyn Ostrogski and his printing facilities became the property of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood.
The brotherhood used Fyodorovs original designs until the early 19th century, in 1583 he visited Vienna and Kraków, where he showed the Emperor his latest inventions. He returned to Lviv, where he died on December 16,1583, two copies,173 unnumbered letter, format, no less than 166 x 118 mm, printed in two colours, preserved at least 7 copies. Zabłudów, 8/VII 1568-17/III1569,8 unnumbered +399 numbered pages, Zabłudów, 26/IX 1569-23/III1570,18 unnumbered sheets +284 sheets +75 first account leaves the second account, the format at least 168 x 130 mm, printed in two colors. Very rare edition, only three known in existence, all incomplete, for the first time in Cyrillic typography the inclusion of a typed table. Lviv, 25/II 1573-15/II1574,15 unnumbered +264 numbered lists, similar to the Moscow edition in 1564 with a few more refined design. There is a version of the almost complete copy. Lviv,1574,40 unnumbered leaves, band set 127,5 x 63 mm, two colour printing, circulation was probably 2000, but has only a single copy is known to have survived
Thomas Legge was an English playwright, prominently known for his play Richardus Tertius, which is considered to be the first history play written in England. Legge was the second of three born to Stephen and Margaret Legge in 1535. Originally from Norwich, Legge moved to Cambridge in 1552 where he matriculated to Corpus Christi College, soon after he moved again to attend Trinity College, where he received a B. A. in 1556. He went on to attend Oxford in 1566, where he received his masters degree. In 1568 Legge became a member of the faculty at Jesus College, where he was known to be an active tutor, on 27 June 1573 Legge was appointed master of Caius College, taking many students from Jesus College with him when he left. While in office at Caius, Legge stirred up trouble by promoting John Depup, M. A. to a fellowship, which Dr. Caius disagreed with because of Depups leanings towards Catholic opinions. Legge occupied many different positions at Caius, becoming commissary to the university in May 1579, Legge died on 12 July 1607 and was buried in Caius College Chapel.
In his will he left money to Caius College, which was used to build up the side of the front court of the school. Legge is best known for his three-act Latin tragedy of Richardus Tertius or Richard III and it is believed that this play was written based on information Legge took from Sir Thomas More’s biography of Richard III. This play appears to be the first real history play written in England, Legge is believed to have written a play about the Destruction of Jerusalem around 1577 that was taken from him before it could be made public
Ostroh is a historic city located in Rivne Oblast of western Ukraine, located on the Horyn River. Ostroh is the center of the Ostroh Raion and is itself designated as a special administrative subordination within the oblast. The current estimated population is around 15,202, the Ostroh Academy was established here in 1576, the first higher educational institution in modern Ukraine. Furthermore, in the 16th century, the first East Slavic books, the Hypatian Codex first mentions Ostroh in 1100, as a fortress of the Volhynian princes. Since the 14th century, it was the seat of the powerful Ostrogski princely family, upon the familys demise in the 17th century, Ostroh passed to the family of Zasławski and Lubomirski. In the second half of the 14th century, together with the whole of Volhynia, was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Following the Union of Lublin, the became part of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. Ostroh, known in Polish as Ostrog, received Magdeburg rights in 1585, in the 17th century, the town was surrounded by fortifications, with a moat, a rampart and five bastions.
In 1609–1753, it was the capital of the Ostrogski family fee tail, founded by Voivode Janusz Ostrogski, the town had a Calvinist academy, among its lecturers was Andrzej Wegierski. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising, the town was burned by the Cossacks, Ostrog slowly recovered, and in the second half of the 18th century, it became the seat of a Jesuit college. In 1793, the town was annexed by the Russian Empire, railroad lines, built in the 19th century, missed Ostrog, and as a result, the town stagnated. In the interbellum period, Ostrog belonged to County of Zdolbunow, the town was an important garrison of the Polish Army, and the Border Protection Corps. Here, the KOP Battalion “Ostrog” was stationed, as well as the 19th Volhynian Uhlan Regiment, on July 7,1920, during the Polish-Soviet War, a battle between a Polish unit under Wincenty Krajowski, and the Bolsheviks of Semyon Budyonny’s 1st Cavalry Army took place. As in 1919 -1939 Ostrog was located in proximity to the Polish - Soviet border.
Following the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, Ostrog was annexed by the Soviet Union, an unknown number of the town’s residents were forcibly sent to Siberia. The Nazi German occupation of southern Soviet Union resulted in the establishment of the Reich Commissariat Ukraine, in the autumn of 1941 several large-scale mass murders took place in Volhynia-Poldolia. On 1 September,19412,500 Jews were shot in Ostrog, six weeks the ghetto was disbanded and another 3,000 people were killed. During the first six months of the German-Soviet war 300,000 Jews were killed in the territory of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, in total 1,430,000 Ukrainian Jews were murdered in the Holocaust
St John's College, Cambridge
St Johns College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort, in constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its Statutes, are the promotion of education, learning, the colleges alumni include the winners of ten Nobel Prizes, seven prime ministers and twelve archbishops of various countries, at least two princes, and three Saints. HRH Prince William was affiliated with St Johns while undertaking a course in 2014. St Johns College is known for its choir, its members success in a wide variety of inter-collegiate sporting competitions. In 2011 the college celebrated its quincentenary, an event marked by a visit of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The college was founded on the site of the 13th-century Hospital of St John in Cambridge at the suggestion of Saint John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester and chaplain to Lady Margaret Beaufort.
However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St Johns in her will, and it was largely the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded. He had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, the college received its charter on 9 April 1511. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margarets executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates, when Lady Margarets executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, and a gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury. The doors were to be closed each day at dusk, sealing the monastic community from the outside world. Over the course of the five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, and now has eleven courts. The first three courts are arranged in enfilade, St Johns College first admitted women in October 1981, when K. M.
Wheeler was admitted to the fellowship, along with nine female graduate students. The first women undergraduates arrived a year later, St Johns distinctive Great Gate follows the standard contemporary pattern employed previously at Christs College and Queens College. The gatehouse is crenelated and adorned with the arms of the foundress Lady Margaret Beaufort, above these are displayed her ensigns, the Red Rose of Lancaster and Portcullis. The college arms are flanked by curious creatures known as yales, mythical beasts with elephants tails, antelopes bodies, goats heads, and swivelling horns. Above them is a tabernacle containing a figure of St John the Evangelist
Jan Kochanowski was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language. He is commonly regarded as the greatest Polish poet before Adam Mickiewicz, Kochanowski was born at Sycyna, near Radom, Poland. He was the brother of Andrzej Kochanowski who would become a poet. Little is known of his early education, at fourteen, fluent in Latin, he was sent to the Kraków Academy. After graduating in 1547 at age seventeen, he attended the University of Königsberg, in Ducal Prussia, at Padua, Kochanowski came in contact with the great humanist scholar Francesco Robortello. Kochanowski closed his fifteen-year period of studies and travels with a visit to France. In 1559 Kochanowski returned to Poland for good, where he remained active as a humanist and he spent the next fifteen years close to the court of King Sigismund II Augustus, serving for a time as royal secretary. In 1574, following the decampment of Polands recently elected King Henry of Valois, in 1575 he married Dorota Podlodowska, with whom he had seven children.
Kochanowski is sometimes referred to in Polish as Jan z Czarnolasu and it was there that he wrote his most memorable works, including The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys and the Laments. Kochanowski died, probably of an attack, in Lublin on 22 August 1584. Kochanowski never ceased to write in Latin, his achievement was the creation of Polish-language verse forms that made him a classic for his contemporaries. His first major masterpiece was Odprawa posłów greckich and this was a blank-verse tragedy that recounted an incident leading up to the Trojan War. It was the first tragedy written in Polish, and its theme of the responsibilities of statesmanship continues to resonate to this day, the play was performed at the wedding of Jan Zamoyski and Krystyna Radziwiłł at Ujazdów Castle in Warsaw on 12 January 1578. It is a series of nineteen elegies upon the death of his beloved two-and-a-half-year-old daughter Urszula and it has been translated into English in 1920 by Dorothea Prall, and in 1995 by Stanisław Barańczak and Seamus Heaney.
Other well-known poems by Kochanowski are Proporzec albo hołd pruski, the satiric poem Zgoda published in 1564, and his translation of the Psalms is highly regarded. He wrote in Latin, examples being Lyricorum libellus, Elegiarum libri quatuor and he greatly enriched Polish poetry by naturalizing foreign poetic forms, which he knew how to imbue with a national spirit. His writings were published collectively for the first time at Cracow in 1584–90, but the so-called jubilee publication, many of his poems were translated into German by H. Nitschmann. Jan Kochanowski, translated by Stanisław Barańczak and Seamus Heaney, New York, Straus, david J. Welsh, Jan Kochanowski, New York, Twayne Publishers,1974, ISBN 0-8057-2490-7
1575 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1575. September 26 – Miguel de Cervantes is captured by Barbary pirates, sir Philip Sidney meets Penelope Devereux, the inspiration for his Astrophel and Stella. The first primer in the Estonian language is published, first printed version of Don Juan Manuels Tales of Count Lucanor appears. It was originally written in 1335
Daniel Heinsius was one of the most famous scholars of the Dutch Renaissance. The troubles of the Spanish war drove his parents to settle first at Veere in Zeeland, to England, next at Rijwijk, in 1596, being already remarkable for his attainments, he was sent to the University of Franeker to study law under Henricus Schotanus. In 1598 he settled at Leiden for the sixty remaining years of his life. His proficiency in the classical languages won the praise of all the best scholars of Europe, and offers were made to him and he soon rose in dignity at the University of Leiden. In 1612 he was appointed as Professor Politices, the worlds first chair in political science and he brought out the Epistles of Joseph Scaliger in 1627. Especially influential was his treatise De tragica constitutione and it was a personal and easily accessible version of what Aristotle had written on tragedy in his Poetics. A revised edition appeared in 1643 with a different title. In 1609 he printed a first edition of his Latin orations, ever more voluminous new editions appeared until the final edition of 1642 which comprised 35 orations.
The collection ended with the ironical Laus pediculi, which was translated in English by James Guitard in 1634, Heinsius first drew attention to himself as a Latin poet with his Senecan tragedy Auriacus, sive libertas saucia. In 1607/08 he wrote another tragedy, Herodes infanticida, which was published only in 1632 and he was, especially prolific in writing elegies, of which a large part was dedicated to his love for a girl called Rossa. A first collection appeared in 1603, ever larger and revised collections of his Poemata, containing other genres, saw the light regularly. By 1628 he had contributed a Latin poem praising the renowned fencer Gerard Thibault to the front of his book Academie de Lespee, in 1601 he published, under the pseudonym of Theocritus à Ganda, Quaeris quid sit Amor. the first emblem book in Dutch. It was re-edited in 1606/07 with the title Emblemata amatoria, a second emblem book, Spiegel vande doorluchtige vrouwen, was published in 1606. Heinsius experimented in Dutch poetry after classical models and his efforts were collected by his friend Petrus Scriverius and published as Nederduytsche poemata in 1616.
They were greatly admired by Martin Opitz, who, in translating the poetry of Heinsius, in 1617 he married Ermgard Rutgers, sister of Janus Rutgersius one of Scaligers favorite pupils. They had two children, who was to become a famous Latin poet and book collector, at the Synod of Dort Heinsius was secretary on behalf of the States General. Afterwards he paid attention to theology and worked on the text of the Greek New Testament for Elzeviers edition. In these years he wrote a large didactic poem, De contemptu mortis
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
The Essays of Michel de Montaigne are contained in three books and 107 chapters of varying length. Montaignes stated design in writing and revising the Essays over the period from approximately 1570 to 1592 was to record some traits of my character, the Essays were first published in 1580 and cover a wide range of topics. His arguments are supported with quotations from Ancient Greek and Italian texts such as De rerum natura by Lucretius. Montaignes stated goal in his book is to man, and especially himself, with utter frankness. He finds the variety and volatility of human nature to be its most basic features. According to the scholar Paul Oskar Kristeller, the writers of the period were keenly aware of the miseries, a representative quote is I have never seen a greater monster or miracle than myself. He opposed European colonization of the Americas, deploring the suffering it brought upon the natives, citing the case of Martin Guerre as an example, he believes that humans cannot attain certainty.
His skepticism is best expressed in the long essay An Apology for Raymond Sebond which has frequently been published separately and we cannot trust our reasoning because thoughts just occur to us, we dont truly control them. We do not have good reasons to consider superior to the animals. He is highly skeptical of confessions obtained under torture, pointing out that such confessions can be made up by the suspect just to escape the torture he is subjected to. In the middle of the section normally entitled Mans Knowledge Cannot Make Him Good, the essay on Sebond defended Christianity. Montaigne eloquently employed many references and quotes from classical Greek and Roman, i. e. non-Christian authors, Montaigne considered marriage necessary for the raising of children, but disliked the strong feelings of romantic love as being detrimental to freedom. One of his quotations is Marriage is like a cage, one sees the birds outside desperate to get in, in education, he favored concrete examples and experience over the teaching of abstract knowledge that is expected to be accepted uncritically.
Montaignes essay On the Education of Children is dedicated to Diana of Foix, the remarkable modernity of thought apparent in Montaignes essays, coupled with their sustained popularity, made them arguably the most prominent work in French philosophy until the Enlightenment. Their influence over French education and culture is still strong, the official portrait of former French president François Mitterrand pictured him facing the camera, holding an open copy of the Essays in his hands. Montaigne heavily edited Essays at various points in his life, sometimes he would insert just one word, while at other times he would insert whole passages. This edition gives modern editors a text dramatically indicative of Montaignes final intentions, analyzing the differences and additions between editions show how Montaignes thoughts evolved over time. Remarkably, he does not seem to remove previous writings, even when they conflict with his newer views, john Florio Charles Cotton Later edited by William Carew Hazlitt George B
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic, known as Old Church Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica, as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages. The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia in 863, the language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885. The texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia, in 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire, there it was taught at two literary schools, the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School.
The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic. The texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire and these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. In Bosnia was preserved the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, while in Croatia a variant of the Glagolitic alphabet was preserved, see Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it originally expressed. For Old Church Slavonic, the segments are reconstructible. The sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the realisation is uncertain. The letter щ denoted different sounds in different dialects and is not shown in the table, in Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, and it is normally transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was probably /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian, /dz/ appears mostly in early texts, becoming /z/ on.
The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, and palatal l, n and r, when it is, it is shown by a kamora diacritic over the letter. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages, the pronunciation of yat ě differed by area. In Bulgaria it was an open vowel, commonly reconstructed as /æ/. The yer vowels ĭ and ŭ are often called ultrashort and were lower, more centralised and shorter than their counterparts i and they disappeared in most positions in the word, already sporadically in the earliest texts but more frequently on. They tended to merge with other vowels, particularly ĭ with e and ŭ with o, the exact articulation of the nasal vowels is unclear because different areas tend to merge them with different vowels. ę is occasionally seen to merge with e or ě in South Slavic, ǫ generally merges with u or o, but in Bulgaria, ǫ was apparently unrounded and eventually merged with ŭ