1583 in science
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- Carolus Clusius publishes Rariorum stirpium per Pannonias observatorum Historiae, the earliest book on Alpine flora.
- Thomas Fincke's Geometria rotundi is published, introducing the terms tangent and secant for trigonometric functions.
- Johann Thomas Freigius' Quaestiones geometricae et stereometricae Euclidis is published in Basel following his death (January 16) from plague.
Physiology and medicine
- Georg Bartisch's Ophthalmodouleia, Das ist Augendienst is published in Dresden, the first modern work on ophthalmology.