Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Archbishop of Armagh
The Archbishop of Armagh is an archiepiscopacy in two of the main Christian churches in Ireland. It takes its name after the city of Armagh in Northern Ireland, the ordinary holds the title of Primate of All Ireland. Since the Reformation, parallel successions to the see have taken place in the Church of Ireland. In the Church of Ireland the Archbishop is Richard Clarke, who is the head of the Church of Ireland. He was elected archbishop in October 2012 and enthroned at St Patricks Cathedral and he succeeded on 8 September 2014, having been ordained Coadjutor Archbishop of Armagh at St Patricks Cathedral, Armagh on 21 April 2013. In the medieval Irish church, the earliest bishops doubled as abbots, Primate of All Ireland Irish Bishops Conference
Drogheda is one of the oldest towns in Ireland, known for its tourism and as a centre of industry, and medical care. It is located in County Louth on the Dublin-Belfast corridor on the east coast of Ireland,49 km or 30 miles north of Dublin. It is the last bridging point on the River Boyne before it enters the Irish Sea. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Newgrange is located 8 km to west of the town. As the River Boyne divides the dioceses of Armagh and Meath, in 1412 these two towns were united and Drogheda became a County Corporate, styled as the County of the Town of Drogheda. With the passing of the County of Louth and Borough of Drogheda Provisional Order,1976, the boundary was further altered in 1994 by the Local Government Regulations 1994. The 2007–2013 Meath County Development Plan recognises the Meath environs of Drogheda as a growth centre on a par with Navan. In recent years Droghedas economy has diversified from its traditional industries, with an number of people employed in the retail, services.
The town has a community of independent artists and musicians who have been looking to the economy rather than Dublin for employment. Drogheda was selected to host Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann 2018, Drogheda has a hinterland of 70, 000+ within a 15 kilometres radius covering County Louth and County Meath. According to the 2011 Irish Census, there are 30,393 in Drogheda town, the results of the numerous and often large-scale excavations carried out within the area of the medieval town in the past ten years appear to have confirmed this statement. The wall on the east side of Rosemary’s Lane is the oldest stone structure in Drogheda and it was completed in 1234 as the west wall of the first castle guarding access to the northern crossing point of the Boyne. The earliest known charter is that granted to Drogheda-in-Meath by Walter de lacy in 1194. In the 1600s the name of the town was spelled Tredagh in keeping with the common pronunciation, Drogheda was an important walled town in the English Pale in the medieval period.
It frequently hosted meetings of the Irish Parliament at that time and it came to light, that the Queen herself was implicated in the orders given. The parliament was moved to the town in 1494 and passed Poynings Law, the most significant legislation in Irish history and this effectively subordinated the Irish Parliaments legislative powers to the King and his English Council. The town was besieged twice during the Irish Confederate Wars, in his own words after the siege of Drogheda, When they submitted, their officers were knocked on the head, and every tenth man of the soldiers killed and the rest shipped to Barbados. The Earldom of Drogheda was created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1661, the Battle of the Boyne,1690, occurred some 6 km west of the town, on the banks of the River Boyne, at Oldbridge. In 1790 Drogheda Harbour Commissioners established, Drogheda Port Company In 1825 the Drogheda Steam Packet Company was formed in the town, in 1837 the population of Drogheda area was 17,365 of whom 15,138 lived in the town
Glenmalure is a U-shaped glacial valley in the Wicklow Mountains in Ireland. It may be reached by the Military Road from Laragh which joins the valley at Glenmalure Cross Roads, south of this junction on the road to Rathdangan and Aughrim lies the ruin of Glenmalure Barracks, built by the British army to try capture rebels after the 1798 rebellion. Historically, Glenmalure contained the stronghold of the Gabhail Raghnal branch of the OByrne clan at Balinacor and it was the site of the Battle of Glenmalure in 1580, when an English force unsuccessfully tried to take Balinacor, home of the rebel chieftain Fiach MacHugh OByrne. It was the worst defeat suffered by an English army in Ireland, a boulder near the Military Road crossroads is carved with an inscription commemorating Fiach MacHugh on one side and Michael Dwyer on the other side. It contains a youth hostel and is a site for camping. It is close to an Irish Army artillery range in the Glen of Imaal and it has some ruined forts in the forest, as points of interest.
It is a starting point for hikers interested in climbing Lugnaquilla. Shamrock Rovers former football stadium in Milltown, was named Glenmalure Park in the 1930s by the owners, the Cunninghams
The ODonnell dynasty were an ancient and powerful Irish family, kings and lords of Tyrconnell in early times, and the chief allies and sometimes rivals of the ONeills in Ulster. Like the family of ONeill, that of ODonnell of Tyrconnell was of the Uí Néill, i. e. Conall was baptised by St. Patrick. The chi-rho was adopted on a banner, the labarum, upheld on a vexillum, which resembled a Christian cross, according to the Life and Acts of Saint Patrick, commissioned by Sir John de Courcy and written by Jocelyn of Furness, St. His land became Tír Chonaill, the land of Conall, conalls Constantinian shield, and this motto, have been the main O’Donnell arms in various forms, through the centuries. They would thence turn right into the atrium of St. Peters Basilica and it would certainly have resonated with and been observed by Cardinal Patrick ODonnell. The jewel in the ODonnell crown was Donegal Castle, one of seven ODonnell castles, nonetheless Tyrconnell existed for a period as an independent kingdom, recognised by King Henry III of England.
Gofraidh Ó Domhnaill, the first chieftain, was son of Domhnall Mór Ó Domhnaill, in 1257, Gofraidh was victorious when he went to battle at Creadran-Cille against Brian Ua Néill. Overtime, the ODonnell King of Tyrconnell became known as the Fisher-King, on the Continent, the ODonnells were patrons of the arts, and of religious benefices. In particular, Manus, wrote the biography of ColmCille and they were the patrons of the Franciscans in Donegal Abbey. They exercised jus patronus to nominate bishops, the O’Donnell rulers of Tyrconnell are noted for having in the late 12th century given sanctuary to the Donlevy dynasty of Ulaid, after their kingdom had fallen to John de Courcy in 1177. It is in Tyrconnell that a branch of the Donlevys became known as the MacNultys, deriving from the Irish Mac an Ultaigh, meaning son of the Ulsterman, in reference to their former kingdom of Ulaid. During the Donlevy exile in Tyrconnell, The O’Donnell gave them the high Gaelic status of “ollahm leighis” or his official physicians and this union of the MacDonlevy and the ODonnell, bore no issue.
Later in the early 13th century, the O’Donnell gave succor to the Ó Cléirigh kings of Uí Fiachrach Aidhne, onara married Donnchadh Ó Cléirigh, a son of the Chief of the name of the Ó Cléirigh family also of Tyconnell. The Ó Cléirigh were too a learned Irish royal family that had lost their sub-kingdom in Uí Fiachrach Aidhne in what is today County Galway to the Anglo-Norman forces of Henry Plantagenet. The Ó Cléirigh went into service of the O’Donnell as poet historians and secretaries or official bards, onara bore for Donnchadh a son Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, anglicized Michael O’Cleary, who matured to become the principal author of the Annals of the Four Masters. But for the grace of the O’Donnell, this union would never have occurred. Lector & Inaugurator of the Chieftaincy - OFriel Gallowglass Marshalls & Standard - Bearers - MacSweeney Commanders of Cavalry - OGallagher Custodians of the Cathach of St, in 1541 Manus ODonnell took part in the Surrender and regrant process. In 1567 the ODonnells won the Battle of Farsetmore against the ONeills, during the Nine Years War of 1594-1603, the ODonnells of Tyrconnel played a leading part, led by the famous Prince Red Hugh ODonnell
Dublin Castle off Dame Street, Ireland, was until 1922 the seat of the United Kingdom governments administration in Ireland, and is now a major Irish government complex. Most of it dates from the 18th century, though a castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland. The Castle served as the seat of English, later British government of Ireland under the Lordship of Ireland, the Kingdom of Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921, the complex was handed over to the newly formed Provisional Government led by Michael Collins. The castle today is a major tourist attraction and conferencing destination, the building is used for State dinners and most significantly, the inauguration of the presidents of Ireland. Dublin Castle fulfilled a number of roles through its history, the second in command in the Dublin Castle administration, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, had his offices there.
Over the years parliament and law courts met at the castle before moving to new purpose-built venues and it served as a military garrison. Castle Catholic was a term for Catholics who were considered to be overly friendly with or supportive of the British administration. Upon formation of the Free State in 1922, the castle assumed for a decade the role of the Four Courts on the Liffey quays which had been damaged during the Civil War. It was decided in 1938 that the inauguration of the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde would take place in the castle, two dedicated conference facilities, The Hibernia Conference Centre and The Printworks, were install for the European Presidencies of 1990 and 2013. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city. The city wall directly abutted the castles northeast Powder Tower, extending north, in 1620 the English-born judge Luke Gernon was greatly impressed by the wall, a huge and mighty wall, and of incredible thickness.
The Poddle was diverted into the city through archways where the walls adjoined the castle, one of these archways and part of the wall survive buried underneath the 18th-century buildings, and are open to public inspection. The building survived until 1673, when it was damaged by fire, the Court of Castle Chamber, the Irish counterpart to the English Star Chamber, sat in Dublin Castle in a room which was specially built for it about 1570. The Castle sustained severe damage in 1684. Extensive rebuilding transformed it from medieval fortress to Georgian palace, United Irishmen General Joseph Holt, a participant in the 1798 Rising, was incarcerated in the Bermingham Tower before being transported to New South Wales in 1799. In 1884 officers at the Castle were at the centre of a homosexual scandal incited by the Irish Nationalist politician William OBrien through his newspaper United Ireland. In 1907 the Irish Crown Jewels were stolen from the Castle, suspicion fell upon the Officer of Arms, Sir Arthur Vicars, but rumours of his homosexuality and links to socially important gay men in London, may have compromised the investigation
Sir John Perrot served as Lord Deputy to Queen Elizabeth I of England during the Tudor conquest of Ireland. He died in custody in the Tower of London after conviction on charges of treason for his conduct in that office. It was speculated that he was a son of Henry VIII. Perrot was born between 7 and 11 November 1528, probably at the seat of Haroldston near Haverfordwest. He was the son of Thomas Perrot and Mary Berkeley. He had two sisters, who married Sir John Philipps of Picton Castle, and Elizabeth, Perrot resembled Henry VIII in temperament and physical appearance, and it was believed he was the bastard son of the late King. The main source for this belief was Sir Robert Naunton, who had never known Perrot and used second-hand accounts to make his case. The case is weakened by the fact that Perrot was Mary Berkeleys third child, not her first, and that she, suggesting that Perrot himself asserted his royal paternity. However, Hopton had been removed from office by the Queen eighteen months prior to Perrots imprisonment, Perrot joined the household of William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, and thereby gained his introduction to Henry VIII.
His advancement faltered on the death of the King in January 1547, Perrots skill as a knight and in the hunt fascinated King Henry, who sought to retain him for reward. Perrot declined, but on his return to England his debts were paid by the French Crown. During the reign of Queen Mary of England Perrot suffered a brief imprisonment in the Fleet with his uncle, Robert Perrot, on a charge of sheltering heretics at his house in Wales. Following his release he declined to assist the Earl of Pembroke in seeking out heretics in south Wales, Perrot inherited the castle and lordship of Carew. At the beginning of Queen Elizabeths reign the naval defence of South Wales was entrusted to his care, and his advancement continued in 1562, when he was elected Knight of Pembrokeshire. He served as member of parliament for Carmarthenshire in 1547, Sandwich in 1553 and 1555, Wareham in 1559, Pembrokeshire in 1563, and Haverfordwest in 1589. In 1570 Perrot reluctantly accepted the newly created post of Lord President of the Irish province of Munster and he landed at Waterford in February of the following year and, in a vigorous and gruelling campaign, reduced the province to peace.
The chief rebel, eluded government forces for some time, in one grisly incident, after fifty rebels had been slain, Perrot sought to awe his enemy by cutting off the heads of the corpses and fixing them to the market cross of Kilmallock. But in 1572, after a second and successful siege of the stronghold of Castlemaine
Hugh Roe O'Donnell
Hugh Roe ODonnell, known as Red Hugh ODonnell, was The ODonnell and king of Tyrconnell. He led a rebellion against English government in Ireland from 1593 and he is sometimes known as Aodh Ruadh II or Red Hugh II, especially within County Donegal. He had numerous brothers and sisters including Donnell and Cathbarr, Sir Hugh was a long-standing ally of the Crown, in attempt to counterbalance the power of Shane ONeill and Turlough Luineach ONeill the rulers of neighboring Tyrone. In Sir Hughs years, a succession dispute broke out to determine who would succeed him. Although Ineen Dubh pushed the case for Hugh Roe to succeed, the Crown chose to support Donnell as it regarded him as the rightful and most stable potential ruler, partly due to the fact that Donnells mother was a local woman while Hugh Roes was from Scotland. Donnell was strengthened by the arrival of a detachment of Irish Army troops dispatched from Dublin under John Connill. There were a number of claimants to the ODonnell title including Hugh Roes great uncle Hugh Dubh ODonnell.
ODonnell escaped briefly in 1591 but was recaptured within days, Hugh ODonnell and his two companions, the brothers Art and Henry ONeill, were the only prisoners ever to successfully escape captivity in Dublin Castle. Upon his return to Ulster, he gained the leadership of the ODonnell Clan becoming The ODonnell, at this point, ONeill did not join ODonnell in open rebellion, but secretly backed him to enhance his bargaining power with the English. ONeill by now was communicating with Philip II of Spain for military aid, declaring open rebellion against the English the following year, ODonnells forces captured Connacht from Sligo to Leitrim by 1595. Their greatest victory came two years however at Battle of the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater River near the border of Tyrone in August 1598. At this battle, the Irish annihilated an English force marching to relieve Armagh, ONeill went south to secure the allegiance of Irish lords in Munster, without much success. ODonnell raided Connacht, destroying the town of Athenry, laying waste to much of County Galway and they leaped from the parapets, and gained the streets of the town, and opened the gates for those who were outside.
They all proceeded to demolish the storehouses and the strong habitations and they remained that night in the town. It was not easy to enumerate or reckon the quantities of copper, iron and habiliments, as a result of these and other assaults, ODonnell was unable to persuade the local lords to join him. However, in the two years, ODonnell and ONeill were hard pressed with the deployment of thousands more English troops in the country. ODonnell repulsed an English expedition towards western Ulster at the battle of Curlew Pass in 1599, even worse for ODonnell than English offensives was the defection of his kinsman, Niall Garve ODonnell to the English side, in return for their backing his own claim the ODonnell chieftainship. Niall Garves brothers and hundreds of followers joined him in supporting the Crown
Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, in the United Kingdom they are issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent granting exclusive rights in an invention. e, the opposite of letters patent are letters close, which are personal in nature and sealed so that only the recipient can read their contents. Letters patent are thus comparable to other kinds of open letter in that their audience is wide, letters patent are so named from the Latin verb pateo, to lie open, accessible. The originators seal was attached pendent from the document, so that it did not have to be broken in order for the document to be read. Thus letters patent do not equate to a letter but rather to any form of document, contract, despatch, decree.
Letters patent are a form of open or public proclamation and an exercise of extra-parliamentary power by a monarch or president. Prior to the establishment of Parliament, the monarch ruled absolutely by the issuing of his written orders. They can thus be contrasted with the Act of Parliament, which is in effect an order by Parliament. No explicit government approval is contained within letters patent, only the seal or signature of the monarch, in their original form they were simply written instructions or orders from the sovereign, whose order was law, which were made public to reinforce their effect. According to the United Kingdom Ministry of Justice, there are 92 different types of letters patent. The Patent Rolls are made up of copies of English royal letters patent. In 1634, during the Thirty Years War, the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II became convinced that his general Albrecht von Wallenstein was plotting treason, on 24 January 1634 the Emperor signed a secret patent removing him from his command.
Finally an open patent, charging Wallenstein with high treason, was signed on 18 February, in the patent, Ferdinand II ordered to have Wallenstein brought under arrest to Vienna, dead or alive. On the basis of patent, several of Wallensteins officers assassinated him and were rewarded by the Emperor. The form of patent for creating peerages has been fixed by the Crown Office Order 1992. Part III of the schedule lays down nine pro forma texts for creating various ranks of the peerage, lords of appeal in ordinary, gender-specific differences are highlighted in italics. In Commonwealth realms, letters patent are issued under the powers of the head of state
Tower of London
The Tower of London, officially Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, a grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III, the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site. The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history and it was besieged several times, and controlling it has been important to controlling the country.
The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a record office. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, in the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period, in the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence and this use has led to the phrase sent to the Tower. Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, in the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, in the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage.
After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the Tower of London is one of the countrys most popular tourist attractions. Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, it is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London and it would have visually dominated the surrounding area and stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle is made up of three wards, or enclosures, the innermost ward contains the White Tower and is the earliest phase of the castle