1595 in science
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- July 21 – A Spanish expedition led by Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira makes the first European landing in Polynesia, on the Marquesas Islands.
- Sir Walter Raleigh explores Guyana and eastern Venezuela.
- Bartholomaeus Pitiscus publishes Trigonometria: sive de solutione triangulorum tractatus brevis et perspicuus in Heidelberg, introducing the term trigonometry to Western European languages.
- 1595–1596 – Scipione (Girolamo) Mercurio publishes La commare o riccoglitrice ("The midwife"), the first text to advocate a Caesarean section on the living in cases of a contracted long pelvis.
- June 13 – Jan Marek Marci, Bohemian physician (died 1667).
- Cornelius Vermuyden, Dutch drainage engineer (died 1677).
- August 24 – Thomas Digges, English astronomer (born 1546).
- November 12 – Sir John Hawkins, English navigator (born 1532) (at sea).
- Grun, Bernard (1991). "1595". The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 265. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- His book The Discovery of Guiana (1596) makes exaggerated claims for his discoveries.
- Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries.
- Norman, Jeremy M. (1991). Morton's Medical Bibliography: An Annotated Check-List of Texts Illustrating the History of Medicine (Garrison and Morton) (5th ed.). Aldershot: Scolar. ISBN 0-85967-897-0.
- Burke, James (1978). Connections. London: Macmillan. p. 188. ISBN 0-333-24827-9.