15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état

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15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état was a military coup launched by mid ranking army officers in Bangladesh on 15 August 1975. The officers planned to removed the secular government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with an Islamic government led Khandaker Mushtaque Ahmed. Sheikh Mujib and most of his family members were killed in the coup.[1][2]

Background[edit]

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared Bangladesh's independence in 26 March 1971 from Pakistan.[3] Bangladesh fought a 9 month liberation war that ended with the surrender of Pakistani forces in Bangladesh to an allied force of Bangladeshi and Indian Armed forces.[4] Bangladesh Awami League in 1973 won by a landside in the first parliamentary election of Bangladesh,[5] on 7 June 1975 Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League was formed which made Bangladesh a one party state with the passing of the fourth ammedment to the constitution; and Sheikh Mujibur was made the President of the one party state.[6]

In 1973, Major Shariful Haque Dalim and his wife had gotten into a scuffle with the sons of Gazi Golam Mostafa, at a function in Dhaka Ladies club; in retaliation, some officers and soldiers of the Lancer unit and 2 Field Artillery Regiment of Bangladesh Army attacked the residence of Golam Mostofa. Golam Mostofa was a leader of Bangladesh Awami League, the ruling party of Bangladesh. Major Dalim, Major S.H.M.B Noor Chowdhury and others officers were charged with breech of discipline. Major Dalim had sought help from President Sheikh Mujib but was refused. Major Sultan Shahriar Rashid Khan resigned over the incident from the Army. Major Dalim and Major Noor were among the officers that lost their commission over the charges of indiscipline;[7] in 1974, Major Syed Faruque Rahman, had become dissatisfied with Bangladesh Awami League government. He would often discussion his dissatisfaction with Major General Ziaur Rahman who was the Deputy Chief of Army Staff. Ziaur Rahman had suggested Faruque to "do something" about the situation in one such meeting.[8]

Major Khandaker Abdur Rashid was able to communicated Commerce Minister Khandaker Moshtaque Ahmed about the situation in the country. Major Khandaker Rashid, Major Dalim, and Khandaker Moshtaque decided that they must repeal BAKSAL and remove Sheikh Mujib. Khandaker Rashid informed Major Faruque Rahman, who agreed with the plan, and he was also told that Major General Zia would support them.[8]

Execution of the coup[edit]

The Mutineers decided to be divided into teams, and each team were to be given specifics instructions and targets.[7]

Bangabondhu Bhaban[edit]

The operation at the residence of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was led by Major A.K.M. Mohiuddin Ahmed. Major Bazlul Huda was placed in the team as he was the Adjutant to the First Field Artillery regiment, which was guarding the home of the President, the team also included Major S.H.M.B Noor Chowdhury.[8] Captain Abul Bashar who was incharge of the guards has served under Major Dalim.[9]

Some of the guards were killed defending the residence after the Mutineers tried to force their way in the residence.[10] Sheikh Kamal was injured defending the residence, he was executed by Captain Huda after the attackers had crossed into the compound. Sheikh Mujib asked "what do you want?" to the mutineers. It was Major Noor and Captain Huda who shot Sheikh Mujib as he was coming down the stairs. Sheikh Mujibs son Sheikh Jamal, Jamal's wife Rosy, Sheikh Kamals wife Sultana Kamal, Sheikh Mujib's wife Sheikh Fazilatunnesa were taken to the bathroom on the first floor. They were shot there by Major Abdul Aziz Pasha and Risaldar Moslemuddin shot and killed all of them inside the bathroom. Major Faruque promoted Captain Huda to Major and Subedar Major Abdul Wahab Joardar to Lieutenant on the spot. Faruque had arrived and left on a tank.[9][11][12] Coloenl Jamil Uddin Ahmad, military secretary to the President, was killed on the way to Bangabondhu Residence after he was called by Sheikh Mujib.[13]

The guards had surrendered after a brief firefight and were lined up outside the house. Major Noor shot Sheikh Nasser, the brother of Sheikh Mujib, in the reception area bathroom. Major Pasha ordered an Havilder to kill Sheikh Russel, who was crying for his mother. Witness reported soldiers looting the house. A dead policeman was seen at the entrance. Major Huda went to Sher Shah road at Mohammadpur to order 10 coffins from carpenters. Major Huda also removed the bodies the next day through an army escort.[9]

Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani residence[edit]

Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani was the nephew of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and viewed as a likely successor. He was killed in his home along with his wife who was believed to be pregnant at the time, his sons Sheikh Fazle Noor Taposh and Sheikh Fazle Shams Parash survived.[14] His home on Road 13/1 in Dhanmondi was surrounded by 20-25 army personnel on 15 August 1975.[15]

Abdur Rab Serniabat residence[edit]

Abdur Rab Serniabat was a former Minister of Water and brother-in-law of Sheikh was killed in his home in Mintoo road, Dhaka on 5:00 am, his home was attacked by a team that was led Major Aziz Pasha, Captain Majed, Major Shahriar Rashid, and Captain Nurul Huda. Serniabat's nephew Shaheed, daughter Baby, grandson Babu and son Arif were also killed in the attack. Three domestic servants were also killed in the attack, his son Abul Hasnat Abdullah survived the attack and 9 other people were injured in the household.[15]

Artillery support[edit]

Artillery under command of Fauque fired mortar shells towards Dhanmondi and Mohadmmadpur; in Mohammadpur, 14 people died from the mortar fire near Sher Shah Suri road.[15]

Rakhi Bahini camp[edit]

Major Faruque attacked the Rakhi Bahini camp with 26 tanks under his command, the Rakhi Bahini surrendered without incident, Faruque moved towards the residence of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the neutralization of the Rakhi Bahini was completed.[16]

Bangladesh Betar[edit]

The main officer of Bangladesh Betar (radio) in Dhaka was attacked by the Mutineers early in the morning, they quickly disarmed the police stationed there and took control of the radio. Major Dalim and Maj Shahriar were in charge of the operation at the radio station, they controlled the flow of information from there.[17]

Aftermath[edit]

Khandaker Moshtaque addressed the nation from the Radio Station, his speech was written by Taheruddin Thakur, announced the formation of a new government led by him. Following him, the Chief of the army, his deputy, the Chief of Naval staff, the chief of the Air force, the police chief and Bangladesh Rifles pledged their allegiance to the new government. Khandaker Moshtaque General M. A. G. Osmani as his Defence Adviser. General Ziaur Rahman was made the Chief of Army Staff on 24 August 1975 and Khalilur Rahman was made the first Chief of Defence Staff of Bangladesh Army.[7]

On 26 September 1975, Khandaker Moshtaque proclaimed the Indemnity Ordinance which protected those involved in the coup legal protection, the ordinance was rectified into an act by the 1979 Bangladesh Nationalist Party, which was founded by Major Ziaur Rahman. Bangladesh Parliament on 14 November 1996, controlled by Bangladesh Awami League, removed the indemnity Act, making way for trials to start.[18] On 5 October 1975, the Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini (Absorption in the Army) Ordinance was passed with strong support from Ziaur Rahman; which absorbed the Rakkhi Bahini into Bangladesh Army.[19] On 3 November 1975, the situation had grown tense with some officers Bangladesh Army led by Brigadier General Khaled Mosharraf and Colonel Shafaat Jamil launched a coup to remove the mutineers and restore order to the Army. Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was replace Khandaker Moshtaque as president and Mosharraf was made the Chief of Army Staff, the mutineers in the morning had killed former President Syed Nazrul Islam, former Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed and Ministers M Mansur Ali and AHM Qamruzzaman in Dhaka Central Jail where they were locked up since the mutiny on 15 August. Zia was placed under house arrest, on 4 November the Mutineers were provided safe passage to Bangkok.[20][21] On 7 November 1975 Khaled Mosharraf was killed in coup that restored Ziaur Rahman to the Chief of Army Staff, the coup was led by the revolutionary soldier’s organisation and Colonel Abu Taher.[22] Taher himself was executed under the government formed by Major General Zia on 21 July 1976.[23][24]

In 1976, the Military regime of Bangladesh provided the coup plotters with diplomatic jobs. AKM Mohiuddin Ahmed was made the second secretary of the embassy in Algeria, AM Rashed Chowdhury was made the consulate general in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, S.H.M.B Noor Chowdhury was made the second secretary in the embassy in Tehran, Shariful Haque Dalim was made the first secretary to the embassy in Beijing, and Abdul Aziz Pasha was made the first secretary to the embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. They held the positions till 1996 when the Bangladesh Awami League formed the government and recalled them to Bangladesh, they refused to comply and as a result were fired from their positions. in 2001, when the Bangladesh Nationalist Party returned to power, they cancelled the last order and reinstated the officers to their diplomatic positions.[25]

Trial[edit]

Major Faruque, Major Sultan Shahriar Rashid Khan, and former state minister Taheruddin Thakur were arrested on 14 August 1996, the same year Bangladesh Awami League returned to power. AFM Mohitul Islam, personal assistant to President Sheikh Mujib, filled a case on 2 October 1996 against the mutineers with Dhanmondi Police Station. The Criminal Investigation Department starts investigating the case the next day. The CID pressed charges against 20 people on 15 January 1997.[18]

On 12 March 1997, the trial starts with 6 accused in jail and 14 were outside the country. Zobaida Rashid, wife of Khandaker Abdur Rashid, was relieved of charges after she filled a number of appeals, reducing the accused to 19. Other cases filled with the High Court challenged the legality of the trial court and its location, the scarping of indemnity act, which delayed the trial. Major Huda was bought from Thailand in 1998, through the signing of an extradition treaty between Thailand and Bangladesh. Dhaka district Justice Kazi Golam Rasul, sentenced 15 accused to death on 8 November 1998. Appeals are filled with Bangladesh High Court, on 14 November 1998 the High Court delivers a split verdict with Justice Md Ruhul Amin upholding the death penalty of 10 of the convicts, Justice ABM Khairul Haque upheld the death penalty of all 15. The case was referred to a third Justice, Mohammad Fazlul Karim, who broke the tie by sentencing 12 of the accused to death.[18]

Then Chief Justice Ruhul Amin constituted an appeal court with 5 justices, who were Justice Surendra Kumar Sinha, Justice Md Abdul Aziz, Justice Md Tafazzul Islam, Justice BK Das, and Justice Md Muzammel Hossain. The verdict of the Appellate Division confirmed the death sentences of the 12 convicts on 19 November 2009. Three of whom sought presidential pardons but were refused, on 27 January 2010, Bangladesh Supreme Court refused the convicts application for review. On 28 January 2010, 5 of the convicts in custody were executed,[18] the hanged were Sultan Shahriar Rashid Khan, AKM Mohiuddin Ahmed, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Syed Faruque Rahman, and Bazlul Huda.[26]

Legacy[edit]

Since 1975 Bangladesh has been under different military governments, with democracy being restored in 1990.[5] Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana, the two daughters of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman survived as there were in Germany on August 1975.[3] Sheikh Hasina is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh.She had been elected three times Prime Minister of Bangladesh, in 1996, 2009, and 2013.[27]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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