1605 in science
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- Habitation at Port-Royal established by France under Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, the first European colonization of Nova Scotia in North America (at this time part of Acadia); the Gregorian calendar is adopted.
- First recorded use of the word Chemistry ("Chymistrie") in English, in Thomas Tymme's The Practice of Chymicall and Hermeticall Physicke, translated from Joseph Duchesne.
- The phenomenon of mechanoluminescence is first discovered by Sir Francis Bacon from scratching sugar with a knife.
- Michal Sedziwój publishes the alchemical treatise A New Light of Alchemy which proposes the existence of the "food of life" within air, much later recognized as oxygen.
- Chartreuse is invented, a liqueur still made by Carthusian monks, named for the great charterhouse (la grande Chartreuse).
- October 19 – Thomas Browne, English physician and encyclopedist (died 1682)
- Martin van den Hove, Dutch astronomer (died 1639)
- approx. date – Semyon Dezhnyov, Pomor navigator (died 1672)
- May 4 – Ulisse Aldrovandi, Bolognese naturalist (born 1522)
- December 29 – John Davis, English explorer (born 1550)
- Roger Marbeck, English royal physician (born 1536)
- "chemistry, n". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-02. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- "Sedziwój, Michal". infopoland: Poland on the Web. University at Buffalo. Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2007-02-22.