SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Flag of Zimbabwe

The national flag of Zimbabwe consists of seven horizontal stripes of green, gold and black with a white triangle containing a red 5-pointed star with a Zimbabwe Bird. The present design was adopted on 18 April 1980, when Zimbabwe won its independence from the United Kingdom; the soapstone bird featured on the flag represents a statuette of a bird found at the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. The bird symbolises the history of Zimbabwe; the design is based on the flag of Zimbabwe's ruling party, the Zimbabwe African National UnionPatriotic Front. The country now known as Zimbabwe was formally known as Southern Rhodesia from 1895 to 1980 — although Rhodesia was used locally between 1964 until June 1979 after Northern Rhodesia obtained its independence — and Zimbabwe Rhodesia between June and December 1979. Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923, thereby became a British self-governing colony following three decades of rule by the British South Africa Company. Following the granting of responsible government a flag was adopted which followed the standard British colonial practice, being a Blue Ensign, defaced with the shield from the Southern Rhodesian coat of arms.

This basic design was used until 1968, although a light blue ensign was introduced in April 1964 following the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. On 11 November 1968, three years after the predominantly white government unilaterally declared independence from Britain, a national flag based on a new design was adopted; this was a green-white-green vertical triband, charged centrally with the national coat of arms. This was the first national flag to contain the Zimbabwe Bird, present in the coat of arms since 1924. In 1979, when the country reconstituted itself as Zimbabwe Rhodesia following the Internal Settlement between the government and moderate black nationalists, a new flag was adopted to mark the transition on 4 September of that year; the flag of Zimbabwe Rhodesia was designed by Flight Lieutenant Cedric Herbert of the Rhodesian Air Force and a member of the Rhodesian Heraldry and Genealogy Society. The design incorporated the pan-African colours of yellow, black and red, with the soapstone bird of Great Zimbabwe, representing an older, pre-colonial source of power and identity in yellow on a vertical black stripe, symbolising the importance of majority rule, three horizontal stripes, one red representing the blood spilled in the struggle for majority rule, one white, representing the integral part of the European community and other minorities in all aspects of the country's life, one green, reflecting the importance of agriculture to the country's well-being, but the new design had little support from black politicians, who described it as "the flag with two names", a reference to "Zimbabwe Rhodesia".

In response, the Voice of Zimbabwe radio service operated by Robert Mugabe's ZANU PF from Maputo in Mozambique, carried a commentary entitled "The proof of independence is not flags or names", dismissing the changes as aimed at "strengthening the racist puppet alliance's position at the Zimbabwe conference in London". This flag was superseded in December 1979 when the UK took interim control of the country following the Lancaster House Agreement which ended the Rhodesian Bush War; the UK's Union Jack was used as the official flag of the country, although de facto the Zimbabwe Rhodesia flag continued to be flown, while fresh elections were held in February 1980. At midnight between 17 and 18 April 1980, the country was granted independence by the UK under the name Zimbabwe and a new national flag was adopted, the draft for, handed to the Minister of Public Works Richard Hove by an unspecified designer; the initial design did not include the Zimbabwe Bird. This was added at the suggestion of Cederic Herbert.

The final draft went through the approval of the then-Prime Minister-elect Robert Mugabe. The adoption of the new flag coincided with the swearing-in of Canaan Banana as the country's new president; the Zimbabwe Bird, used on every flag since 1968, is based on a statue discovered from the ancient ruined city of Great Zimbabwe in the country's south-east. Some police officers in Zimbabwe have the national flag displayed on their uniforms' sleeve tops; the national flag of Zimbabwe is made up of five different colours: Green, red and white. The colours of the flag of Zimbabwe carry political and cultural meanings. Green represents rural areas of Zimbabwe. Yellow stands for the wealth of minerals in the country, predominantly gold; the red symbolises the blood shed during the first and second Chimurenga in the "struggle for independence". The black indicates the heritage and ethnicity of the black majority; the white triangle is a symbol for peace. The golden bird, known as the "Great Zimbabwe Bird" is the national symbol of Zimbabwe and is most a representation of the bateleur eagle or the African fish eagle.

It "exemplifies the strong bond that ancestral humans had with animals and spiritual guides" and it is treated with a high level of importance and respect. The red star represents the nation's aspirations, taken to be socialism as promoted by the ruling Zimbabwe African National UnionPatriotic Front, whose party flag was used as the basis for the flag of the nation; the Great Zimbabwe Bird first appeared in an armorial sense when it was incorporated in the coat of arms of Southern Rhodesia, which were granted by Royal Warrant on 11 August 1924. It was fi

Lewis Luxton

Lewis Luxton was an Australian rower who competed for Great Britain at the 1932 Summer Olympics and became a member of the International Olympic Committee. Luxton was born in Melbourne, Australia, the son of Sir Harold Luxton, a member of the IOC, he was educated at Melbourne Grammar School before going to England to study at Pembroke College, Cambridge. In 1931 he and his partner William Sambell were runners-up in Silver Goblets at Henley Royal Regatta to Jumbo Edwards and Lewis Clive. In 1932 he was a member of the winning Cambridge boat in the Boat Race; the 1932 Cambridge crew won the Grand Challenge Cup at rowing as Leander Club. They were subsequently chosen to represent Great Britain at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where they came fourth in the eights. Luxton served with his father on the AOF Executive Committee for many years; when his father, resigned from the IOC on 9 May 1951 Otto Mayer announced Lewis would be his successor. Luxton, as deputy chairman, undertook a great deal of work for the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.

In 1957 he was awarded CBE for services to the Olympic movement. Luxton was Chairman of Shell Australia where he was able to give support to Ralph Doubell, an employee. At Mexico in the 1968 Summer Olympics, he made the presentation to Doubell of the gold medal for the 800m. Luxton was made an honorary member of the IOC when he retired in 1974. Luxton had the deciding vote on whether Australia should send athletes to compete at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In a 6-5 vote, Australia attended the Games officially. List of Cambridge University Boat Race crews