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Academic authorship

Academic authorship of journal articles and other original works is a means by which academics communicate the results of their scholarly work, establish priority for their discoveries, build their reputation among their peers. Authorship is a primary basis that employers use to evaluate academic personnel for employment and tenure. In academic publishing, authorship of a work is claimed by those making intellectual contributions to the completion of the research described in the work. In simple cases, a solitary scholar carries out a research project and writes the subsequent article or book. In many disciplines, collaboration is the norm and issues of authorship can be controversial. In these contexts, authorship can encompass activities other than writing the article. According to some standards writing the entire article would not constitute authorship unless the writer was involved in at least one other phase of the project. Guidelines for assigning authorship vary between disciplines, they may be formally defined or cultural custom.

Incorrect application of authorship rules leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the violator. A 2002 survey of a large sample of researchers who had received funding from the U. S. National Institutes of Health revealed that 10% of respondents claimed to have inappropriately assigned authorship credit within the last three years; this was the first large scale survey concerning such issues. In other fields only limited or no empirical data is available; the natural sciences have no universal standard for authorship, but some major multi-disciplinary journals and institutions have established guidelines for work that they publish. The journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America has an editorial policy that specifies "authorship should be limited to those who have contributed to the work" and furthermore, "authors are encouraged to indicate their specific contributions" as a footnote; the American Chemical Society further specifies that authors are those who "share responsibility and accountability for the results" and the U.

S. National Academies specify "an author, willing to take credit for a paper must bear responsibility for its contents. Thus, unless a footnote or the text of the paper explicitly assigns responsibility for different parts of the paper to different authors, the authors whose names appear on a paper must share responsibility for all of it." In mathematics, the authors are listed in alphabetical order. This usage is described in the "Information Statements on the Culture of Research and Scholarship in Mathematics" section of the American Mathematical Society website the 2004 statement: Joint Research and Its Publication. In other branches of knowledge such as economics, finance or particle physics, it is usual to sort the authors alphabetically; the medical field defines authorship narrowly. According to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, designation as an author must satisfy four conditions; the author must have: Contributed to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation Drafted or provided critical revision of the article Provided final approval of the version to publish Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolvedAcquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

Many authors - those in the middle of the byline - do not fulfill these authorship criteria. Some medical journals have abandoned the strict notion of author, with the flexible notion of contributor. Between about 1980-2010 the average number of authors in medical papers increased, tripled; the American Psychological Association has similar guidelines as medicine for authorship. The APA acknowledge that authorship is not limited to the writing of manuscripts, but must include those who have made substantial contributions to a study such as "formulating the problem or hypothesis, structuring the experimental design and conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting the results, or writing a major portion of the paper". While the APA guidelines list many other forms of contributions to a study that do not constitute authorship, it does state that combinations of these and other tasks may justify authorship. Like medicine, the APA considers institutional position, such as Department Chair, insufficient for attributing authorship.

Neither the Modern Languages Association nor the Chicago Manual of Style define requirements for authorship. From the late 17th century to the 1920s, sole authorship was the norm, the one-paper-one-author model worked well for distributing credit. Today, shared authorship is common in most academic disciplines, with the exception of the humanities, where sole authorship is still the predominant model. In particular types of research, including particle physics, genome sequencing and clinical trials, a paper's author list can run into the hundreds. In 1998, the Collider Detector at Fermilab adopted a unorthodox policy for assigning authorship. CDF maintains a standard author list. All scientists and engineers working at CD

Ivy Hill Cemetery (Maryland)

Ivy Hill Cemetery is on the north side of Old Sandy Spring Road across from its intersection with Nichols Drive in Laurel, United States, within the city's historic district. Burials began in the 19th century after the Laurel Cotton Mill reserved three acres in the 1850s for burial of mill employees; the Ivy Hill Cemetery Company acquired the original land, known as both the Laurel Mill Cemetery and Greenwood Cemetery, added five more acres in 1890. Ivy Hill merged with Greenwood Cemetery in 1944. A joint memorial service is held annually by the Laurel Volunteer Fire Department, Laurel Volunteer Rescue Squad, Laurel Police Department; the Ivy Hill Association, a tax exempt organization formed in 1973, was appointed by the Circuit Court of Prince George's County as the cemetery's trustee in 1974. The organization received a Saint George's Day award in 1981 from the Prince George's County Historical Society for preserving and salvaging the cemetery; the oldest gravestone, for a man named Pritchard, dates to 1867.

Charles H. Stanley

Sam Houston Elementary School (McAllen, Texas)

Sam Houston Elementary School is a public elementary school in the Los Encinos area of McAllen, Texas. A part of the McAllen Independent School District, it is the oldest public school in the city, it is named after Sam Houston. The school first opened in 1920. For a period of 50 years it was located at 1001 S. 16th Street, in the La Paloma area of south-central McAllen. As of the early 1990s this building was in a poor condition due to a lack of maintenance. Connie Maheshwari became the principal of Sam Houston in fall 1990. Around January 1994 Maheshwari decided to become involved with the Alliance School partnership in order to improve the school; the McAllen ISD board decided to relocate the school to the newly-developed 246 house Los Encinos area, a community developed by McAllen Affordable Homes for low and moderate income homeowners. The proposal made by Dr. Robert Schumacher, newly-appointed as the MISD superintendent, was that the existing Houston Elementary attendance boundary would be divided between a portion still assigned to Houston and parts newly assigned to Thigpen and Zavala elementaries.

On August 15, 1996 a new building opened 6 miles from the previous one. Maheshwari convinced the parents to support the move. Due to the distance of Sam Houston from the La Paloma area, most of the students at the previous campus attended other schools closer to their houses; when the new Sam Houston campus opened, about 20% of the students had attended school at the previous campus. South Texas College Downtown is located on the site of the former Sam Houston Elementary; as part of the 1990s moving negotiations the parents agreed to have a university campus there, as there had been an increase in enrollment at the tertiary level. STC agreed to a two-year lease from MISD; as of 2017 the area around the former Sam Houston campus is assigned to Fields Elementary School. The school, within the Los Encinos area, is in a 58,000-square-foot, with 28 classrooms, on a 9.5-acre property at 93221 Olga Ave. The campus has a computer lab, custodian office, a life skills classroom, a library, a multi-purpose room, a parental involvement office, a storage room, a science laboratory.

A project-based curriculum was implemented after the 1996 move. The school has Minitropolis, a partnership with IBC Bank. On the day Minitropolis is held, students dress in professional wear and roleplay as employees, customers and government officials in a fictional city called Minitropolis. Minitropolis was first held circa 1996. Residents of the Sam Houston zone are zoned to Brown Middle School, Memorial High School. Most Sam Houston graduates go to those two schools; the portion of the Sam Houston attendance zone coinciding with that of Travis Middle School and McAllen High School consists of McAllen-Miller International Airport and empty land. "Transforming Sam Houston Elementary School". In: Shirley, Dennis. Valley Interfaith and School Reform: Organizing for Power in South Texas. University of Texas Press, January 1, 2010. ISBN 0292774966, 9780292774964. Start: p. 63. - Chapter available on JSTOR. Sam Houston Elementary School

Custard (band)

Custard are an Australian indie rock band formed in 1989 in Brisbane, Queensland. The band is colloquially known as "Custaro" due to frequent misreadings of its name; the band was known as Custard Gun and featured David McCormack on vocals and guitar, Paul Medew on bass, James Straker on guitar and Shane Brunn on drums. After a few shows and line up changes Custard Gun morphed into Custard in early 1990. Custard's first release was the four track vinyl EP Rockfish Anna, issued in November 1990. A fire breathing Elvis impersonator was part of the EP's launch festivities. Custard's debut album, Buttercup/Bedford, was recorded in 1991, it was meant to be released on CD in March 1992. The CDs never turned up on time for the album launch - forcing them to give away copies of the album away on cassettes to keep the audience happy, it was not until the end of 1992 that the band got their hands on the elusive CDs. By this time Custard had signed to Ra Records and had released their first "major label" CD - an EP called Gastanked.

Gastanked did well for the band, peaking at #41 on the ARIA singles chart. It was followed in 1993 by another EP, two singles - Casanova and the double A-side Singlette/Flanelette. By this time the band was onto its third drummer - Shane Brunn had been replaced by Gavin Herrenberg, who had subsequently been replaced by Danny Plant. Custard's debut major label album Wahooti Fandango was issued in 1994; the video for the album's first single,'Aloha Tambourinist', was the only Custard video to get played on Video Hits. The video, set on a beach, featured male models pretending to be Custard, while scantily clad women roll around in the sand. Wahooti Fandango was critically acclaimed, being nominated for'Best Alternative Release' at the 1995 ARIA awards. However, the band's "breakthrough hit" didn't come until October 1995, when they released "Apartment", the first single lifted from Wisenheimer. "Apartment" received a high rotation airplay on triple j, was voted in at number 7 in the 1995 Hottest 100.

Wisenheimer was recorded in San Francisco, being produced by Eric Drew Feldman. The album spawned the singles'Sunset Strip','Lucky Star' and'Leisuremaster'. After Wisenheimer, Danny Plant was replaced by Glenn Thompson. From around 1995, Custard music video director Andrew Lancaster would sometimes play keyboard with the band at their live shows. On 24 November 1996, Custard performed on the forecourt of the Sydney Opera House as part of Crowded House's Farewell To The World concert, alongside You Am I and Powderfinger. Estimates of the audience in attendance range from 100,000 to 250,000 people.1996 and 1997 were big years for the band, touring Australia with Weezer, Frank Black and the Presidents of the USA, venturing back to America to play more shows with the Presidents. While in the USA the band recorded album number 4, We Have the Technology.'Nice Bird' was the first single to be lifted from We Have the Technology, followed by'Anatomically Correct'. However, it was the final single, ` Music is Crap'.

The song was written and sung by Thompson, reinvigorated public interest in Custard. The next single, Girls Like That, became the band's biggest hit, it peaked at #52 on the ARIA singles chart, came in at an impressive number 3 in the 1998 triple j Hottest 100. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1999 they won ARIA Award for Best Video for Andrew Lancaster and David McCormick; the album that it was featured on, went on to become the band's most commercially successful. Custard went on a six-month "hiatus" at the end of 1999, before disbanding. After the split, lead singer and guitarist, McCormack, formed The Titanics with drummer, Thompson on guitar. Joining them were McCormack's then-wife, Emma Tom, on bass and Tina Havelock-Stevens on drums; the Titanics did not last long, releasing two albums, Size Isn't Everything and Love is the Devil, before the group disbanded. McCormack released a series of solo albums with The Polaroids, featuring his brother Dylan on bass, Shane Melder on drums and Cameron Bruce.

Releases include "Candy", "Save Dave" DVD, "The Truth About Love" and "Little Murders". In 2004, Strong joined The Lost Gospel, alongside Phil Jamieson of Grinspoon; the group released one album. Thompson joined The Go-Betweens in 2001, having played with Robert Forster and Grant McLennan in 1995. In addition to appearing on many of Forster's solo albums, Thompson played on The Go-Betweens' final two albums, Bright Yellow Bright Orange and Oceans Apart. Thompson released his first solo album, Brighton Bothways, under the name "Beachfield" in 2007. In 2010, Thompson formed a duo with Adele Pickvance from The Go-Betweens, called Adele & Glenn, launched a debut album in April 2012. In 2008, Medew was a member of The Purple Hearts. Custard reformed for an event on 10 December 2009 to celebrate Queensland's 150th birthday, appearing alongside Powderfinger and a number of other local acts. Since reforming, the band have played two gigs per year. In 2010 they appeared at the Meredith Music Festival, they performed as a headliner act for Float On: A Brisbane Flood Relief Benefit in February 2011, a show to raise money for the victims of the floods in Queensland.

In 2011 Custard were featured as part of the Brisbane Festival. Custard releas

Victory Christian School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)

Victory Christian School is a private Christian school located in Tulsa, Oklahoma at 7700 South Lewis. The school is co-ed and a Subsidiary program of Victory Christian Center, Inc. a non-denominational Christian church in Tulsa. Victory Christian School was founded in 1979 by Pastor Billy Joe Daugherty and his wife, Pastor Sharon Daugherty. In 1989, the school moved to its current facilities at 7700 S. Lewis Ave in Tulsa, OK. In 1979, 269 students were enrolled in K-6. In 1980, grades 7-12 we added to the school, the enrollment increased to 422 for K-12. In 1995, enrollment reached 835 in K-12. Enrollment was as an all-time high in 2013 at 1254 in K-12. Since enrollment has been decreasing, is at just under 1000 students. Baseball Basketball Cheer-leading Cross Country Football Golf Soccer Tennis Track Volleyball Wrestling Baseball Basketball Cheer-leading Cross Country Football Golf Tennis Track Volleyball Art AP Art BandColor guard/Winterguard Concert Band Jazz Band Marching BandChoirOne Heart Worship BandDrama Photography Art Band Choir Academic Bowl Chess Club Robotics Robotics Victory Christian School Official Site Victory Conquerors Football Victory Christian Band Official Website Victory Conquerors Football Invictus Robotics Team