1633 in science
- June 22 – Galileo Galilei, the Italian scientist, is convicted of heresy by the Inquisition for his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. He is sentenced to house arrest for the remainder of his life.
- Jesuit scholar Giovanni Baptista Ferrari publishes De Florum Cultura in Rome, a pioneering text in floriculture.
- The first, crude, isolation of lactose, by Italian physician Fabrizio Bartoletti (1576–1630), is published.
- May 15 – Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, French military engineer (died 1707)
- November 3 – Bernardino Ramazzini, Italian physician, a founder of occupational medicine (died 1714)
- Fantoli, Annibale (2003). Galileo — for Copernicanism and the Church (3rd English ed.). Vatican Observatory Publications. ISBN 88-209-7427-4.
- Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: a Documentary History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06662-6.
- Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo at Work. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5.
- Bartoletti, Fabrizio (1633). Methodus in dyspnoeam … [Procedure for asthma … ]. Bologna ("Bononia", Italy): Nicolò Tebaldini for the heirs of Evangelista Dozza. p. 400. From page 400: "Manna seri hæc. Destilla leni balnei calore serum lactis, donec in fundo vasis butyracea fœx subsideat, cui hærebit salina quædam substantia subalbida. Hanc curiose segrega, est enim sal seri essentiale; seu nitrum, cujus causa nitrosum dicitut serum, huicque tota abstergedi vis inest. Solve in aqua propria, & coagula. Opus repete, donec seri cremorem habeas sapore omnino mannam referentem." (This is the manna of whey. [Note: "Manna" is the dried, sweet sap of the tree Fraxinus ornus.] Gently distill whey via a heat bath until the buttery scum settles to the bottom of the vessel, to which substance some whitish salt [i.e., precipitate] attaches. This curious [substance once] separated, is truly the essential salt of whey; or, on account of which nitre, is called "nitre of whey", and all [life] force is in this that will be expelled. [Note: "Nitre" is an alchemical concept. It is the power of life, which gives life to otherwise inanimate matter. (See the philosophy of Sendivogius.)] Dissolve it in [its] own water and coagulate. Repeat the operation until you have cream of whey, recalling, by [its] taste, only manna.) In 1688, the German physician Michael Ettmüller (1644–1683) reprints Bartoletti's preparation. See: Ettmüller, Michael (1688). Opera Omnia… Frankfurt am Main ("Francofurtum ad Moenum", Germany): Johann David Zunner. 2, page 163. From page 163: "Undd Bertholetus praeparat ex sero lactis remedium, quod vocat mannam S. [alchemical symbol for salt, salem] seri lactis vid. in Encyclopaed. p. 400. Praeparatio est haec: … " (Whence Bartoletti prepared a medicine from milk whey, which he called manna or salt of milk whey, see in [his] Encyclopedia [note: this is a mistake; the preparation appeared in Bartoletti's Methodus in dyspnoeam … ], p. 400. This is the preparation: … )