SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

RASD1

Dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASD1 gene on chromosome 17. It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types; as a member of the Ras superfamily of small G-proteins, RASD1 regulates signal transduction pathways through both G proteins and G protein-coupled receptors. RASD1 has been associated with several cancers; the RASD1 gene contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The RASD1 gene contains 2 exons; this gene produces 2 isoforms through alternative splicing. A glucocorticoid response element located in the 3'- flanking region of this gene allows glucocorticoids to induce expression of RASD1; this protein is a small GTPase belonging to the Ras superfamily. As a Ras superfamily member, RASD1 shares several motifs characteristic of Ras proteins, including four conserved GTP binding pocket domains: the phosphate/magnesium binding regions GXXXXGK, DXXG, the guanine base binding loops NKXD and EXSAK.

These four domains, along with an effector loop, are responsible for binding to other proteins and signaling molecules. Another common Ras motif, the CAAX motif, can be found in the C-terminal of RASD1 and promotes the subcellular localization of RASD1 to the plasma membrane; as a GTPase, RASD1 shares motifs, such as in the regions G-1 to G-3, with other GTPases. The full-length RASD1 cDNA produces a protein with a length of 280 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 31.7 kDa. RASD1 is expressed in many tissues including brain, heart and kidney, it is present in bone marrow, but its expression is absent or at low levels in spleen, lymph node, peripheral blood leukocytes. RASD1 modulates multiple signaling cascades. RASD1 could activate G proteins in a receptor-independent manner and inhibit signal transduction through several different G protein-coupled receptors. Although RASD1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small G-proteins, which promotes cell growth and tumor expansion, it plays an active role in preventing aberrant cell growth.

It can be induced by corticosteroids and may play a role in the negative feedback loop controlling adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. In the hypothalamus, RASD1 expression is induced in two ways: one by elevated glucocorticoids in response to stress, one in response to increased plasma osmolality resulting from osmotic stress. Based on its inhibitory actions on CREB phosphorylation, increased RASD1 in vasopressin-expressing neurons may be essential in controlling the transcriptional responses to stressors in both the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus via modulation of the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. RASD1 is reported to function with leptin in the activation of TRPC4 transient receptor potential channels and, plays a role in regulating electrical excitability in gastrointestinal myocytes, pancreatic β-cells, neurons. In addition, the interaction between RASD1 and Ear2 is involved in renin transcriptional regulation. In humans, upregulation of RASD1 leading to increased apoptosis has been observed in several human cancer cell lines such as DU-154 human prostate cancer cells and in human breast cancer cells MCF-7.

In the latter, high concentrations of calycosin suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, thereby promoting apoptosis of the cells. Moreover, compared with a control group, the expression of Bcl-2 decreased with calycosin while Bax increased, these changes correlated with an elevated expression of RASD1. Together, it appears that, at high concentrations, calycosin can trigger the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating RASD1. Additionally, in the cardiovascular field, a genome-wide analysis of common variants demonstrated a substantial overlap in the genetic risk of ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease, such as the link between RASD1 and other loci such as RAI1 and PEMT. A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the RASD1 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy; the study was based on a community cohort study and four additional randomized controlled trials of primary prevention cohorts and secondary prevention cohorts.

RASD1 has been shown to interact with NOS1AP

The Daily of the University of Washington

The Daily of the University of Washington referred to in Seattle as The Daily, is the student newspaper of the University of Washington in Seattle, USA. It is staffed by University of Washington students, excluding the publisher, advertising adviser, accounting staff, delivery staff; the Daily features regular news, sports and arts & leisure sections, as well as weekly science and wellness sections and an online podcast. In addition to its regular daily and weekly sections, The Daily publishes a number of special sections every year. An edition of The Game Daily is published before all home football and men's basketball games and is distributed on campus and at the tailgate party before the game. Other special sections throughout the year include The Holidaily, Sex Edition, Spring Break Edition, Outdoors Guide, Greek Edition, Career Guide, Housing Guide. A special Graduation Edition and Salute to Grads, are distributed on campus, at all graduation exercises, commencement. Additionally, The Daily publishes a magazine: Pacific Wave.

The Daily is overseen by the Board of Student Publications, which consists of representatives from the Associated Students of the University of Washington, the Graduate and Professional Student Senate, the Faculty Senate, the UW Department of Communication, the UW administration, the Daily newsroom, a local professional publication. The Daily was founded in September 1891 as The Pacific Wave and ran under that title until June 5, 1908, having absorbed the short-lived campus paper The College Idea which ran during the 1895-1896 school year; the newspaper became a daily with its September 15, 1908 issue and changed its name to The Pacific Daily Wave. This name lasted until May 21, 1909, the paper became The University of Washington Daily when the 1909-1910 school year began; the University of Washington Daily ceased publishing Monday issues in 1933 during the Great Depression. In 1976, it became The Daily of the University of Washington, in 1985 it resumed publishing on Mondays. In 2007, The Daily became a partner with Next Door Media and jointly launched udistrictdaily.com, a blog that reports on the U-District in Seattle, Washington.

In 2010, The Daily created. The first episode premiered on UWTV, Channel 27 on February 5, 2010, with new episodes premiering every two weeks during the academic year. In 2016, The Daily switched to a twice weekly print schedule on Mondays and Thursday, with regular online content the other weekdays. In 2018, The Daily switched to a once weekly print schedule on Mondays, with regular online content the other weekdays; the Daily is one of the most awarded college newspapers in the United States. Former awards include Newspaper of the Year from the Associated Collegiate Press in 1996, 1997 and 2000. At the 2010 National College Media Conference The Daily earned the Pacemaker for General Excellence, Best of Show, Story of the Year Editorial/Opinion, Story of the Year Diversity and Multimedia Story of the Year; the Daily earned the 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 Apple Award for the best four-year college newspaper in the United States at the CMA Spring Convention in New York City. It has been recognized with the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Mark of Excellence Award for the Best All-Around Newspaper in Region 10 by the Society of Professional Journalists.

It was a finalist for the 2009 Pacemaker Newspaper of the Year, earned second place for Best of Show at the National College Media Conference. In November 2008, The Daily ran an op-ed column written by John Fay, a columnist, which criticized gay marriage as part of a point/counterpoint regarding the passage of Proposition 8 in California; the piece was accompanied by an illustration of a man standing next to a sheep, referencing Fay's statement that allowing gay marriage would lead to legal bestiality. Among other controversial statements, Fay argued that "being homosexual, like other emotional tendencies, doesn’t make someone a bad person, but it’s a problem that needs to be dealt with, not denied." The article sparked an outrage among the student body, students assembled in the Husky Union Building to protest, claiming that the article encourages "fear and hate."The Graduate and Professional Student Senate drafted a resolution at their December 3, 2008 meeting to have the editor-in-chief and opinion editor to either apologize for the publication of the opinion piece and illustration, or to resign.

Daily editor-in-chief Sarah Jeglum stated that she supports balanced viewpoints and doesn't plan to give the apology as requested. She encouraged groups and individuals to continue to voice their various opinions and to have The Daily act as a public forum for a variety of opinion; the Graduate and Professional Student Senate passed a resolution at their February 4, 2009 meeting to direct the Graduate and Professional Student Senate representative on the Board of Student Publications to vote for censure of editor-in-chief Sarah Jeglum. On February 10, 2009 the Associated Students of the University of Washington passed a resolution supporting "the independence of The Daily as a member of the free press," and "its right to publish controversial material provided it is within the bounds of speech protected by the first amendment and THAT the ASUW finds that printing this article did not cross those legal boundaries and did not violate The Daily’s code of ethics, thus a call for censure of Sarah Jeglum is not warranted."

The Board of Student Publications met February 19 to consider the GPSS resolution to censure Sarah Jeglum. The board voted with two yea, and