1634 in science
- Johannes Kepler's fictional account of the view from the moon Somnium (written 1608) is published posthumously by his son.
- Thomas Johnson begins publishing Mercurius Botanicus, including a list of indigenous British plants.
- Gilles de Roberval shows that the area under a cycloid is three times the area of its generating circle.
- Louise Bourgeois Boursier publishes her Collection of Secrets on obstetrics in Paris, including techniques such as podalic version.
- Publication of Insectorum sive Minimorum Animalium Theatrum in London, compiled posthumously from the work of Edward Wotton, Conrad Gesner and Thomas Penny by Thomas Muffet and prepared for publication by Théodore de Mayerne.
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- February 15 – Wilhelm Fabry, German-born surgeon (born 1560)
- November 7 – Cornelius Drebbel, Dutch inventor (born 1572)
- Nikolaus Ager, French botanist (born 1568)
- Marin le Bourgeoys, French inventor and artist (born c. 1550) (approximate date)
- Martin Llewellyn, British cartographer (born 1565?)
- Auger, Léon (1962). Un savant méconnu, Gilles Personne de Roberval, 1602-1675: son activité intellectuelle dans les domaines mathématique, physique, mécanique et philosophique. Paris: Blanchard.
- "Bourgeois, Louyse". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-02.