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Uchylsko is a village in Gmina Gorzyce, Wodzisław County, Silesian Voivodeship, near the border with the Czech Republic. It has a population of 338 and was first mentioned in a written document in 1229, it lies 2 kilometres south-west of Gorzyce, 8 km south-west of Wodzisław Śląski, 56 km south-west of the regional capital Katowice. The village was first mentioned in the document of Pope Gregory IX issued on 26 May 1229 among villages belonging to Benedictine abbey in Tyniec, as Uchilsko. Benedictine abbey in Orlová in the late 13th century had rights to revenues from three villages in the Castellany of Racibórz, namely Gorzyce, Uchylsko and Gołkowice. Information about village at Gmina Gorzyce website

Villa il Pavone, Province of Siena

The Villa il Pavone is a neo-Renaissance style suburban palace located outside of the city of Siena, a region of Tuscany, Italy. In 1825, Mario Bianchi Bandinelli commissioned the Sienese architect Agostino Fantastici to refurbish the existing Palazzo del Pavone, attributed to Francesco di Giorgio, into a villa with gardens; the entry gate has two pillars topped by sphinxes, sculpted by Luigi Magi. The small square villa building is accessed by a portico with Tuscan-style columns. Along the sides of the villa are brick orangeries; the freer-style Romantic garden is crossed by winding paths. It has designed set-pieces: a Doric loggia overlooking the Via Cassia, a monument recalling Roman pyramid sepulchres and a hypogeum-grotto, overlooking a small pond. In 2015, the villa served as a retirement home

Availability heuristic

The availability heuristic known as availability bias, is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, method or decision. The availability heuristic operates on the notion that if something can be recalled, it must be important, or at least more important than alternative solutions which are not as recalled. Subsequently, under the availability heuristic, people tend to weigh their judgments toward more recent information, making new opinions biased toward that latest news; the availability of consequences associated with an action is positively related to perceptions of the magnitude of the consequences of that action. In other words, the easier it is to recall the consequences of something the greater those consequences are perceived to be. Most notably, people rely on the content of their recall if its implications are not called into question by the difficulty that they experience in bringing the relevant material to mind.

Prior to the work of Kahneman and Tversky, the predominant view in the field of human judgment was that humans are rational actors. However, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman began work on a series of papers examining "heuristic and biases" used in the judgment under uncertainty, they explained that judgment under uncertainty relies on a limited number of simplifying heuristics rather than extensive algorithmic processing. Soon, this idea spread beyond academic psychology, into law and political science; this research questioned the descriptive adequacy of idealized models of judgment, offered insights into the cognitive processes that explained human error without invoking motivated irrationality. One simplifying strategy people may rely on is the tendency to make a judgment about the frequency of an event based on how many similar instances are brought to mind. In 1973, Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman first studied this phenomenon and labeled it the "availability heuristic".

An availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, method or decision. As follows, people tend to use a available fact to base their beliefs about a comparably distant concept. There has been much research done with this heuristic, but studies on the issue are still questionable with regard to the underlying process. Studies illustrate that manipulations intended to increase the subjective experience of ease of recall are likely to affect the amount of recall. Furthermore, this makes it difficult to determine if the obtained estimates of frequency, likelihood, or typicality are based on participants' phenomenal experiences or on a biased sample of recalled information. However, some textbooks have chosen the latter interpretation introducing the availability heuristic as "one's judgments are always based on what comes to mind". For example, if a person is asked whether there are more words in the English language that begin with a t or k, the person will be able to think of more words that begin with the letter t, concluding that t is more frequent than k. Chapman described a bias in the judgment of the frequency with which two events co-occur.

This demonstration showed that the co-occurrence of paired stimuli resulted in participants overestimating the frequency of the pairings. To test this idea, participants were given information about several hypothetical mental patients; the data for each patient consisted of a drawing made by the patient. Participants estimated the frequency with which each diagnosis had been accompanied by various features of the drawing; the subjects vastly overestimated the frequency of this co-occurrence. This effect was labeled the illusory correlation. Tversky and Kahneman suggested that availability provides a natural account for the illusory-correlation effect; the strength of the association between two events could provide the basis for the judgment of how the two events co-occur. When the association is strong, it becomes more to conclude that the events have been paired frequently. Strong associations will be thought of as having occurred together frequently. In Tversky & Kahneman's first examination of availability heuristics, subjects were asked, "If a random word is taken from an English text, is it more that the word starts with a K, or that K is the third letter?"

They argue that English-speaking people would think of many words that begin with the letter "K", but that it would take a more concentrated effort to think of any words in which "K" is the third letter. Results indicated that participants overestimated the number of words that began with the letter "K" and underestimated the number of words that had "K" as the third letter. Tversky and Kahneman concluded that people answer questions like these by comparing the availability of the two categories and assessing how they can recall these instances. In other words, it is easier to think of words that begin with "K", more than words with "K" as the third letter. Thus, people judge words beginning with a "K" to be a more common occurrence. In reality, however, a typical text contains twice as many words that have "K" as the third letter than "K" as the first letter. There are three times more words with "K" in the third position than words that begin with "K". In Tversky and Kahneman's seminal paper, they include findings from several other studies, which show support for the availability heuristic.

Apart from their findings in the "K" study, they found: When participants were shown two visual structures and asked to pick t

Quakers Yard railway station

Quakers Yard railway station serves the village of Edwardsville in the community of Treharris, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. It is located on the Merthyr Tydfil branch of the Merthyr Line. Passenger services are provided by Transport for Wales; the station was opened as "Quakers Yard Low Level" by the Taff Vale Railway in 1858. Isambard Kingdom Brunel built the Goitre Coed Viaduct, it was opened in 1841, its height is approx 100 ft the Goitre Coed Viaduct was widened in 1862 with another stone bridge of differing design sitting embedded next to the original one, this addition can be spotted when passing underneath the viaducts arches on the Taff Trail cycle route 8. This viaduct still exists as the gateway to the Taff Valley for the Cardiff to Merthyr Tydfil railway line. In a recent TV appearance, a Brunel expert put the Goitre Coed Viaduct as the finest example of Brunel's viaducts in Wales. Two more viaducts existed at the north end of Edwardsville which were demolished shortly after the Beeching cuts of the 1960s.

The main reason for their demolition was subsidence and the viaducts had been strengthened with huge wooden supports for a number of years. Until June 1964, this was a large, two-level junction with services to numerous locations and a hub through which large amounts of coal were transported; the line from Abercynon-Merthyr Tydfil is now a single line operation, the dual track being removed in the early 1970s, although some dual track has since been brought back at Merthyr Vale running towards Merthyr Tydfil to help with the increased frequency of services. Today the station is situated below the Taff Vale estate where bespoke detached properties have been built on the high level line area and on the incline that existed from the lower level which ran towards Treharris; the derelict upper level was partitioned. The land to the east below Edwardsville cemetery was earmarked for business units - but was sold off to Bailey Homes house builders - detached houses were built and named Forest Grove.

A small senior citizen sheltered bungalow complex buffers this site with the Taff Vale site. Quakers Yard station is provides access to and from the Taff Trail cycle route; the beauty spot at Pontygwaith Bridge over the River Taff lies about 1 mile north on the trail. Arriva Trains Wales allow cyclists on local trains with some restrictions on timing. Access to the Taff Trail is via a foot crossing over the railway line a short distance north of the railway platform; this section of the Taff Trail includes the original stone sleepers from Edwardsville towards Pontygwaith and beyond towards Mount Pleasant, where Richard Trevithick ran the first steam locomotive to run on rails and the first to carry passengers in 1804. Trains run every half-hour each way, north to Merthyr Tydfil and south to Pontypridd & Cardiff Central. Southbound trains continue alternately to Barry Bridgend via the Vale of Glamorgan Line. On Sundays there is a two-hourly service each way to Bridgend. Edwardsville is the name given to the small urban area.

The railway pre-dated the villages of both Treharris. Although not close to Quakers Yard village, this was the only local placename of any note at the time; the Edwardsville area began as a public house and a few houses on the road along the valley to Merthyr. The Great Western Hotel, still exists just above the railway station, with strong links to the railways obvious by its name. Around 1900 the area acquired its name from the landlord of Edmund Edwards. Mrs C M Williams of Grove House, wrote: My late father, Mr A Clarke, was in the meeting held in the Long Room of the Great Western Hotel when Edwardsville was given its name, it was called this after the late Mr Edmund Edwards, chairman of the meeting and the proprietor of the Great Western Hotel. He became the owner of many properties; the suffix ‘-ville’ was popular for new placenames around this time those built by speculative builders or landlords. It suggested both a pastoral ‘village’ and a then-fashionably French aspect of'ville'. Edwardsville expanded on both sides of the road and soon had chapel.

On 27 October 1913, much destruction was caused in Edwardsville. The roofs of many houses, the school and chapel were destroyed. Three people were over a hundred injured. Damage was caused over a wide area, with chimneys demolished as far down the valley as Pontypridd; this toll remains Britain's highest for a tornado. Edwardsville has expanded below the main road, with new houses filling the space of the previous high-level station. Edwardsville is part of the Treharris community. Boosted by the pit, Treharris has grown to be larger than both. Website about EdwardsvilleTrain times and station information for Quakers Yard railway station from National Rail

Do I Love You (Yes in Every Way)

"Do I Love You" is a song co-written and recorded by Paul Anka, from his 1972 eponymous LP. Released as an advance single in late 1971, "Do I Love You" reached number 14 on the Easy Listening Singles charts of both the U. S. and Canada, number 16 on the Canadian Pop chart, was a modest hit on the U. S. Hot 100 as well. "Do I Love You" was made most famous when covered by American country music artist Donna Fargo. Released in December 1977, it was the second single from her album Shame on Me; the song peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart. It reached number 1 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada. Paul AnkaDonna Fargo Engelbert Humperdinck recorded it for his 1973 album "King Of Hearts". Anka himself recorded a number of versions. In 2012, he re-recorded the song as a duet with Dolly Parton for his album Duets, he recorded the song with his daughter, Anthea. She recorded a Spanish version as well. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Donna Fargo - Do I Love You on YouTube