Anti-Life Equation

The Anti-Life Equation is a fictional mathematical equation appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. In Jack Kirby's Fourth World setting, the Anti-Life Equation is a formula for total control over the minds of sentient beings, sought by Darkseid, for this reason, sends his forces to Earth, as he believes part of the equation exists in the subconsciousness of humanity. Various comics have defined the equation in different ways, but a common interpretation is that the equation is a mathematical proof of the futility of living. Jack Kirby's original comics established the Anti-Life Equation as giving the being who learns it power to dominate the will of all sentient and sapient races, it is called the Anti-Life Equation because "if someone possesses absolute control over you - you're not alive." Most stories featuring the Equation use this concept. The Forever People's Mother Box found the Anti-Life Equation in Sonny Sumo, but Darkseid, unaware of this, stranded him in ancient Japan.

When Metron and Swamp Thing attempt to breach the Source, which drives Swamp Thing temporarily mad, Darkseid discovers that part of the formula is love. Upon being told by the Dominators of their planned invasion of Earth, Darkseid promises not to interfere on the condition that the planet is not destroyed so his quest for the equation is not thwarted, it is revealed in Martian Manhunter vol.2 #33 that Darkseid first became aware of the equation 300 years ago when he made contact with the people of Mars. Upon learning of the Martian philosophy that free will and spiritual purpose could be defined by a Life Equation, Darkseid postulated that there must exist a negative equivalent. In Walt Simonson's Orion, it is revealed that Darkseid and Desaad have gained the Equation from clones of Billion Dollar Bates. In stopping them Orion learned the Equation, tried to use it to make people happy and good, but decided that the suppression of free will is always a bad thing, it was revealed that Mister Miracle knows the formula, but is one of the few with the willpower not to use it.

During the series Young Justice, it was stated that the mystical heroine Empress holds within her a piece of an Anti-Life Equation, which allows her to control the minds of others to limited extents. Countdown to Final Crisis #10 reveals that the Pied Piper contained the equation within his mind and can manifest it through music. Desaad attempts to use Piper as his pawn to help him destroy Brother Eye and Darkseid so that he could rule Apokolips. During the Final Crisis, Darkseid's plan comes to fruition without Pied Piper's help. In fact, using the "spoken form" of the Anti-Life, Darkseid is able to rebuild a strong power base on Earth by having Mokkari unleash the Anti-Life Equation through the internet by email, turning those exposed to it into his mindless slaves. Libra used the Anti-Life Equation to turn several members of his Secret Society of Super Villains into Justifiers while some of Earth's superheroines and supervillainesses were converted into new versions of the Female Furies.

It was revealed that the Equation can be countered by drawing the New Genesis word for "freedom" on one's face. Doctor Sivana invented a device that allowed Lex Luthor to wrest control of the Equation-controlled Justifiers from Libra and Darkseid. In Terror Titans #4, it is revealed that because of the brain's status as an electromagnetic organ, Static is immune to the Equation's effects. In Final Crisis #7, Wonder Woman breaks the Equation's hold over the people of Earth by binding Darkseid's body with the Lasso of Truth. After Darkseid's disappearance, the Calculator tasks himself with the role of tracking down the fragments of the Equation left in the internet, which had taken the appearance of floating diamonds in Alta Viva, an in-universe multi-player online game similar to Second Life. By having real diamonds cut in the shape of the virtual ones, the Calculator hopes to harness and restore its power for himself; the Multiversity features a different version to the Anti-Life Equation known as the Anti-Death Equation: a dark, mysterious power used by the Gentry, capable of transforming and corroding anything from the laws of physics to beings as powerful as Monitors, turning its victims into gruesome and evil creatures who are incapable of dying.

In DCnU continuity the Equation itself retains its importance to a great many interested parties having come into the control of a host of users both in incomplete and whole formulations of itself. It is first possessed by the evil Old God Yuga Khan who uses it to resurrect many of his fallen brethren in a final battle against his sons Uxas and Izaya before falling in battle. Many an individual would come to possess either finite understanding or complete utilization of the Anti-Life Equation for their own personal use over time; some eons Darkseid would use a fraction of its nightmarish will-sapping power in his invasion cycles of the Earth 2 parallel universe. The formula itself however is revealed to be a sentient being able to express itself to its current hosts, it was revealed that the Anti-Life Equation was the source of the Anti-Matter Universe's creation, that the Anti-Monitor used to be a Qwardian scientist in the Anti-Matter Universe named Mobius, the first to find and touch the Anti-Life Equation.

When Darkseid died in the battle against him and his daughter Grail, Mobius forfeited the equation in order to return to his original form. The power itself which possessed him is now in the hands of his original benefactor, esta

Texas pride

Texas pride the sense of demographic pride felt by people who or lived in the state of Texas. Texas is a state with a unique cultural complex story of development; this individuality has shaped a state-wide construct of indomitable demographic pride. Texas has been nicknamed "The Lone Star State" as a tribute to the state's time as a sovereign nation. While Texans are proud to be Americans, the spirit of independence still exists among Texans. Where this symbolism came from is up for debate as many historians have different arguments. However, the Texas State Legislature says the following regarding The Lone Star State:"Whatever its origins, whatever its uses, from the serious to the playful, the phrase'The Lone Star State' has achieved universal currency as a sharp and memorable way to evoke the unique legacy of Texas and the indomitable spirit of its people" By taking a look into Texas History, we can see how the events of the past have contributed to the undeniable state-wide identity and cultural nationalism that Texans possess.

The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in Texas history and arguably sparked the flame of Texas pride. During this fight for freedom, people from across the United States came to Texas to support the cause. However, contrary to popular belief, they didn’t come as courageous men who had a burning desire to fight for Texan Independence. Instead, many were drawn to Texas by the hopeful prospect of a new beginning, their stories and struggles became part of Texas history and contributed to what would soon emerge as intense state pride. As the war for independence went on, this iconic pride that Americans known so well today, began to develop. Men like James Bowie, David Crockett, as well as lesser-known Texas heroes, like James Bonham and Almeron Dickenson, began to emerge as the cause for the fight became more personal and the pride in Texas and desire for independence grew; the war came to a point where victory seemed impossible. Many, justifiably so, chose to leave. However, others chose to risk their lives in a war.

While the battle was lost, the cry "Remember the Alamo" still rings across the land as a memorial of the acts of courage that took place nearly two centuries ago. These men, these volunteers, these martyrs mark the beginning of an unmatched cultural nationalism that would stand tall and true through decades of change. In April 1836, Texas gained independence after defeating the Mexican army at The Battle of San Jacinto, their status as an independent country remained intact until 1845 when they became the 28th state to be seceded into the Union. During this period of independence that lasted a decade, patriotism flourished; this patriotism, developed during this period of sovereignty undoubtedly continued once Texas became part of the Union and remains a thriving aspect of Texas culture today. Media plays a large role in promoting this cultural unity and nationalistic state pride. A song written by June Hershey and Don Swander called “Deep in the Heart of Texas” can be heard at events across the state.

Sports teams like the San Antonio Spurs, Texas Rangers, Dallas Stars, Dallas Mavericks feature this song at home games. Texas pride is channeled as thousands of fans shout the lyrics. In 1985, the “Don’t Mess With Texas” campaign was launched, it was launched by the Texas Department of Transportation as an ad discouraging littering on Texas roadways. Today, it has morphed into a slogan, used to promote Texas pride; the Texas Department of Transportation prides themselves on the creation of this slogan as it still fuels Texas state pride. From 1978-1991 an American Primetime TV show aired called “Dallas.” The show depicted a wealthy family. A picture perfect family like this, tied directly to Texas, furthers the Texas superiority stereotype and fuels Texas pride. Texas historian and fanatic T. R. Fehrenbach authored books, he wrote that "Texas was not a society, but a people" and he believed that the history of Texas was so powerful that it was "based on, but not limited by facts." Fehrenbach was considered one of Texas' greatest historians and fearlessly promoted the narrative that everything is, indeed and better in Texas.

Demographic pride in Texas has been created and furthered as children are taught at a young age what Texas is all about. Studies show that exposing children to stereotypes good or bad, reinforces the validity of the stereotypes in their minds and creates a long-lasting bias towards these subjects; this is displayed in the Texas education system as they encourage vast amounts of curriculum centered on Texas history. In fact, when compared to every other state, the Texas Education Agency demands that a greater amount of state history curriculum be incorporated into the school year as young students are expected to extensively understand different eras of Texas history through the modern day. In a study performed by the University of Texas at Austin, researchers found that those who most identified as "Texan" were not only those who were born and raised in Texas, but those who immigrated to Texas from another state as a young child. "The fact that both native-born Texans as well as those who came to Texas from another state as children are so much more to identify with Texas than the other groups suggests that Texas identity is in large part forged in school in grades 4 through 7 when students are required to study Texas history in social studies class."

The children who grow up learning to take such pride in their state grow up to be adults who continue to push the "Texas is the best" narrative. This cycle continues and as a result