Norsk biografisk leksikon
Norsk biografisk leksikon is the largest Norwegian biographical encyclopedia. The first edition was issued between 1921 and 1983, including 19 volumes and 5,100 articles and it was published by Aschehoug with economic support from the state. Kunnskapsforlaget bought the rights to NBL1 from Aschehoug in 1995, the project had economic support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Ministry of Culture, and the second edition was launched in the years 1999-2005, including 10 volumes and ca.5,700 articles. In 2006 the work for an edition of NBL2 began. In 2009 an Internet edition, with access, was released by Kunnskapsforlaget together with the general-purpose Store norske leksikon. The electronic edition features additional biographies, and updates about dates of death of biographees, apart from that, the vast body of text is unaltered from the printed version. This is a list of volumes in the edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Published 2005 Volume 10, Wilberg–Aavik, plus extra material, published 2005 This is a list of volumes in the first edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon.
Published 1923 Volume 2, Bjørnstad–Christian Frederik, published 1925 Volume 3, Christiansen–Eyvind Urarhorn. Published 1931 Volume 6, Helland–Lars Jensen, published 1934 Volume 7, Lars O. Jensen–Krefting. Published 1940 Volume 10, Narve–Harald C, published 1949 Volume 11, Oscar Pedersen–Ross. Published 1966 Volume 16, Sørensen–Alf Torp, published 1969 Volume 17, Eivind Torp–Vidnes. Published 1975 Volume 18, Vig–Henrik Wergeland, published 1977 Volume 19, N. Wergeland–Øyen
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Hannibal Sehested (governor)
Hannibal Sehested was a Dano-Norwegian statesman and son-in-law of King Christian IV. He served as Governor-general of Norway from 1642 to 1651, where he fought the Torstenson War against Sweden, after a fall from grace leading to his resignation as Governor-general in 1651, he regained the trust of Frederick III in 1660 and negotiated the Treaty of Copenhagen. He worked as treasurer and councillor of state until his death in 1666. Sehested was born at Arensborg Castle on Øsel, Son of Claus Maltesen Sehested and he was named after his maternal uncle Hannibal Mogensen Gyldenstjerne of Restrup. He attended the Sorø Academy from 1626 to 1629, and studied abroad in Germany, France, after completing his education abroad, he returned to Denmark and was attached to the court of King Christian IV. In 1639 he was granted the fiefdom of Tranekær, and in 1640 he received the far more lucrative Båhus fiefdom in Norway and was appointed member of the Danish National Council. Though failing in both particulars, he retained the favor of the king, who had marked him out as a son-in-law, accordingly, in 1636 he was betrothed to one of the daughters, the countess Christine, aged nine, whom he married in 1642.
In May 1640, Sehested became a member of the Rigsråd and he believed that the proper field for the exercise of his talents was diplomacy, and he openly aspired to be minister of foreign affairs. Despite a successful embassy to Spain in 1640-1641, he did not obtain the coveted post, in April 1642 he was appointed Governor-General of Norway, where he served until 1651. He now had the opportunity of displaying his administrative and organizing abilities, during Christian IVs second war with Sweden, Sehested, as governor of Norway, assisted his father-in-law materially. He invaded Sweden four times, successfully defended Norway from attack, the war was unpopular with Norway and was referred to in Norway as the Hannibal war. Concerns centered around high taxes required to support the army and the concern that Sweden would be induced to invade Norway. Although Norwegian forces suffered no defeats, as part of the settlement and Herjedalen. He was considerably assisted in his endeavours by the fact that Norway was regarded as the possession of the kings of Denmark.
At the same time, Sehested freely used his wealth and official position to accumulate for himself property. His successes finally excited the envy and disapprobation of the Danish Rigsraad, especially of his rival, Korfits Ulfeldt, the quarrel became acute when Sehesteds semi-independent administration of the finances of Norway infringed upon Ulfeldts functions as lord treasurer of the whole realm. In November 1647, Ulfeldt carried his point, and a decree was issued that henceforth the Norwegian provincial leaders should send their rents and taxes direct to Copenhagen. Unable to meet the charges brought against him, he compromised matters by resigning his governorship and his senatorship, throughout his trial, Sehested had shown prudence
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him