Compton Cookout

The Compton Cookout was an off-campus event hosted by several University of California, San Diego students on February 15, 2010. The party, which gained national attention, was intended to ridicule Black History Month. Attendees were invited to wear costumes that stereotyped minorities living in ghettos African-Americans; the event was met with widespread criticism and was followed by several racially charged occurrences aimed at minority students. This caused several students and faculty to name the quarter semester of the Compton Cookout and related events the "Black Winter." On February 15, 2010 several UCSD students, many of whom were members of Greek letter organizations, hosted a racially-themed party they dubbed the "Compton Cookout". Hosted off campus and intended to mock Black History Month, the party's Facebook event description included instructions for attendees to dress stereotypical ghetto outfits. In the days following the party a representative of the controversial satirical college paper Koala covered the party in a news broadcast, using a racial slur to refer to black UCSD students.

A noose was found hanging in UCSD's main library, prompting students to protest the campus's racial environment by occupying the chancellor's office. UCSD responded by announcing a new diversity campaign, Not in Our Community, held a teach-in in the Price Center East Ballroom, as well as carrying out long standing demands presented by the Black Student Union. A month a KKK Hood was found on the head of the statue of Dr. Seuss outside of Geisel Library, which Angela Wai-Yin Kong tied into the "tense racial campus climate" following the Compton Cookout; the winter quarter during which the Compton Cookout took place is known by students and faculty at UCSD as Black Winter. Racially motivated events that occurred during this time, in addition to the cookout, included a KKK hood being found on a statue of Dr. Seuss and the discovery of a noose in the main library. In response to these events, the Black Student Union at UCSD organized a series of marches and rallies in coordination with other groups like M.

E. Ch. A.. The University Administration countered by organizing a series of teach-ins; the BSU criticized the teach-ins. Several BSU members attended one of the teach-ins wearing T-shirts reading "real pain, real action" and after an hour of listening, BSU leader Jasmine Phillips announced that the teach-ins would not solve the problem and that they wanted "real action", before escorting hundreds of students out of the teach-in. BSU made a list of 32 demands related to having a more racially inclusive campus which included a center for African- American students, a task-force to hire more African American faculty, multiple efforts to increase enrollment of African American students, an African American Studies Minor, a Vice Chancellor of Equity and Inclusion, requirement for all students to take a class related to EDI. After the Compton Cookout the university held a teach-in on racial tolerance; this teach-in however, fell short as Students protested outside. "About 3,000 people gathered at the teach-in and resulting demonstration -- with whites making up about half of the crowd."

Since, the university has implemented many programs and initiatives to further enhance the experience of students of color. The Office for Equity and Inclusion created an DEI Unit plan that depicts strategic goals and their accomplishments; the university has implemented the Black Academic Excellence Initiative since February 2016. The vision of this program is to increase the population of black students and faculty. Additionally, the initiative intends to increase scholarship and funding to promote the success of black student and faculty; the university has established the Black Resource Center as well as the Raza Resource Centro. Students were allowed to choose both the location and appoint, in charge; the Black Resource Center was established in May 2013. The Raza Resource Centro was established in April 2014. In 2011, it became a university requirement to take a DEI Diversity and Inclusion course; the criteria that these courses must fulfill are in frameworks, subject matter, pedagogy. There was not an official statement on behalf of the university addressing the issue.

Justin Simein, the writer of the Netflix show "Dear White People" and the 2014 movie of the same title used a black face party at a white university as a major plot point. Simein was conflicted about including a black face party at the end of his film because he thought that it would be criticized as a thing of the past that doesn't occur on college campuses anymore, but after hearing about the Compton Cookout, decided to put the event into his film. Simien was quoted in an SF Gate article saying “I took the blackface party out because I thought it was too outlandish,” Simien told SF Gate. “Then when that happened at UC San Diego, I sort of rabbit-holed down the research path, ‘Oh, I wasn’t pushing buttons. I was talking about something that happens.’"

Black caracara

The black caracara is a species of bird of prey in the Falconidae family found in Amazonian and French Guiana lowlands along rivers. They are locally referred to as Ger' futu busikaka in the Republic of Suriname or juápipi by the Emberá of Panama and Colombia. Both these names refer to multiple bird species within Falconidae. German-Brazilian ornithologist Helmut Sick referred to this species as Gaviao-deAnta translating to "tapir-hawk". Since migration has not been observed, they are considered sedentary, its genus Daptrius is considered monotypic today, though some include its close relative, the red-throated caracara otherwise separated in Ibycter. Daptrius ater are considered to be a widespread raptor spotted in groups of 2-5 individuals in tall trees. Nests built from sticks containing 2-3 spotted, brown eggs have been observed high up in trees, however little else is known about their breeding habits and reproduction. Typical of caracaras, this species is an omnivore as well as an opportunistic feeder, known to be both a predator and forager.

The species Daptrius ater was first described by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1816. It shared its genus with the red-throated caracara, now known as Ibycter americanus in the monotypic genus Ibycter; the inclusion of I. americanus in the genus Daptrius was made by ornithologist Herbert Friedmann in 1950, backed up by Dean Amadon in 1968. However, a recent mitochondrial DNA and nuclear sequence data study focusing on caracaras and allies determined that these two species not only differ in genus, but are arranged in polyphyly, meaning that they do not share a common most recent ancestor. Additionally, it was concluded that D. ater's closest relative is the yellow-headed caracara, existing on the phylogenetic tree as a sister group. Adult black caracara are a glossy black except for the distinctive white band on the base of the tail, yellow to orange-red feet and face; the adults appear similar to those of their closest relative, the red-throated caracara, however they have distinctly long and narrow wings and tail, as well as a black beak.

Additionally, the red-throated caracara can be distinguished from the black caracara by their red throats. The average adult length is 41-47cm; the females of this species average 350-440g and are larger than the males that have an average weight of 330g. Juveniles can be identified by their dull black plumage, pale yellow face and the 3-4 black bars found on the rectrices; when observing flight from a distance, it is notable that Daptrius ater soars, but instead can be seen continuously flapping. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and degraded former forests. Common habitats include gallery forests and wooded savannas that are situated between altitudes of 0 to 900m. Black caracarca can be found in mangroves and disturbed forested habitats along water. IUCN estimates a fluctuating population of 1000-10000 individuals, with an adult population of 670-6700. Population declines have been documented over the past 10 years, however it is not presently considered critical.

The designation of least concern is attributed to their large range, ability to survive in fragmented forests, their diverse diet. The black caracara are most seen in pairs or family groups of 3-4, but can be spotted alone, they have been observed flying in straight patterns with continuous flapping, walking along rivers, perching in tall trees. Other common sightings have famously associated them with tapir and capybara, as they have been observed picking ectoparasites from the fur; this interaction can be considered mutualistic as tapirs notably solicit nearby black caracara using a call lay still to facilitate tick removal. They are known to scavenge around human settlements and exhibit the ability to fish along rivers. D. ater are known to eat anything from vegetation to carrion to live prey. More their diet consists of nestlings and fledglings of other bird species, smaller birds such as flycatchers and pigeons, small mammals, frogs, invertebrates, small fish, palm nuts and other fruit. With this diverse list that makes up their diet, they have developed various foraging and hunting strategies.

These include directly attacking the nests of other birds, searching the canopy foliage with their beaks for insects, exhibiting comfort around humans when scavenging in camps. The diverse list of feeding strategies includes foraging small fish within their riverine habitats. D. ater make use of exposed rocks and emergent vegetation in and along rivers, walking on these surfaces while peering into the water for small fish such as species of Characidae. Once the prey is spotted, they are caught using either the bill or talons carried away from the river for consumption. Black caracara fish in areas of fast moving rivers where migratory fish are forced to bottleneck and become trapped among plants or within shallow pools, reflecting their opportunistic nature; this species can be identified from other species by their harsh, single note kraaaa calls that occur during flight. This call is repeated several times ending in a decrescendo, they do not exhibit diverse vocalizations, restricted to variations in length and volume of their distinctive shriek.

There is only one observational record of a black caracara nest in Brazil being built from twigs 60–70 cm in length, 25m high in a tree. Little else is known ab