1650 Heckmann

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1650 Heckmann
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 11 October 1937
MPC designation (1650) Heckmann
Named after
Otto Heckmann (astronomer)[2]
1937 TG · 1929 SK
1940 NB · 1941 UA1
1943 DG · 1944 OC
1947 FA · 1951 GX
1952 SL1 · 1963 PB
A906 OC · A909 DF
main-belt · Nysa[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 110.26 yr (40,273 days)
Aphelion 2.8319 AU
Perihelion 2.0396 AU
2.4358 AU
Eccentricity 0.1626
3.80 yr (1,389 days)
0° 15m 33.48s / day
Inclination 2.7500°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 24.93±6.53 km[4]
26.69±6.13 km[5]
29.07±1.4 km (IRAS:6)[6]
30.202±0.297 km[7]
35.15±1.66 km[8]
12.05±0.05 h[9]
14.893±0.005 h[10]
14.9042±0.0154 h[11]
0.046±0.007 [7]
0.0497±0.005 (IRAS:6)[6]
B–V = 0.638[1]
U–B = 0.200[1]
Tholen = F[1] · F[3]
11.284±0.001 (R)[11] · 11.40±0.25[12] · 11.56[1][3][5][6][7][8] · 11.61[4]

1650 Heckmann, provisional designation 1937 TG, is a rare-type Nysian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 29 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 11 October 1937, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, and later named after astronomer Otto Heckmann.[2][13]

Classification and orbit[edit]

Heckmann is a member of the Polanian subgroup of the Nysa family of asteroids and shows a rare F-type spectrum in the Tholen classification scheme. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.8 AU once every 3 years and 10 months (1,389 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.16 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] Heckmann was first identified as A906 OC at the discovering observatory in 1906. Its first used observation was taken at Heidelberg in 1909, when it was identified as A909 DF, extending the body's observation arc by 28 years prior to its official discovery observation.[13]

Rotation period[edit]

French amateur astronomer René Roy obtained the first rotational lightcurve of Heckmann in September 2005. It gave a rotation period of 12.05 hours with a brightness variation of 0.06 in magnitude (U=2).[9] A more refined lightcurve with a period of 14.893 hours and an amplitude of 0.16 magnitude was obtained by Australian amateur astronomer David Higgins at the Hunters Hill Observatory and collaborating stations in March 2008 (U=3).[10] In September 2013, photometric observations at the Palomar Transient Factory, California, gave a low rated lightcurve with a similar period of 14.9042 hours (Δ 0.09 mag; U=1).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Heckmann measures between 24.93 and 35.15 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.034 and 0.06.[4][5][6][7][8] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link agrees with the results obtained by IRAS, that is an albedo of 0.0497 and a diameter of 29.07 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 11.56.[3]


This minor planet was named in honor of German astronomer Otto Heckmann (1901–1983), director of the Bergedorf Observatory in Hamburg, president of the International Astronomical Union (1967–1970) and the first director of ESO, the European Southern Observatory, which foundation had been initiated by him. He was active in the fields of cosmology and several aspects of fundamental astronomy.[2] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3932).[14]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1650 Heckmann (1937 TG)" (2016-11-03 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1650) Heckmann. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 131. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d "LCDB Data for (1650) Heckmann". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1650) Heckmann". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Higgins, David; Pravec, Petr; Kusnirak, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Brinsfield, James W.; Allen, Bill; et al. (September 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Hunters Hill Observatory and Collaborating Stations: November 2007 – March 2008". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (3): 123–126. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..123H. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 – Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "1650 Heckmann (1937 TG)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 

External links[edit]