North Station

North Station is a major transportation hub located at Causeway and Nashua Streets in Boston, United States. It is one of the city's two inbound terminals for Amtrak and MBTA Commuter Rail trains, the other being South Station; the main concourse of North Station is located at the street level below TD Garden, Boston's main indoor sports and entertainment facility, allowing people attending events there to take advantage of the extensive transportation connections at the site. North Station facilities include: Downtown terminus for MBTA Commuter Rail northern routes Southern terminus for Amtrak's Downeaster service Staffed ticket windows Small food court and waiting area Direct access to adjacent TD Garden for sporting and other events Parking garage Several MBTA Commuter Rail lines, plus Amtrak's Northeast Corridor service to New York City, Washington, D. C. and beyond, originate from South Station, about 1 1⁄4 miles around the Boston peninsula from North Station. No direct link exists between the two stations.

Transfers to Amtrak and the MBTA Commuter Rail's Providence/Stoughton, Needham and Framingham/Worcester Lines may be made at Back Bay, a one-seat ride on the Orange Line from North Station. Additionally, transfers from the Fitchburg Line to the South Station lines can be made at Porter, a one-seat ride on the Red Line. A North–South Rail Link is proposed to link North and South Stations, but as of May 2006 the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has withdrawn its sponsorship of the proposal due to its high cost. Station on the Boston subway's Orange Line and Green Line North Station is wheelchair accessible on all modes. There is a cross-platform connection between the inbound Green Line. All other Orange Line stations are accessible as well, but not all Green Line stations are wheelchair accessible. Most major stations on the MBTA Commuter Rail routes are accessible with full-length high or mini-high platforms, but some stations are not accessible. All Downeaster stations are accessible with low platforms with wheelchair lifts.

MBTA Bus route 4 runs with stops near Canal Street. The EZRide Shuttle loops on Red Auerbach Way with a stop near the secondary entrance to North Station. Lovejoy Wharf, located off Beverly Street northeast of North Station, is the head of navigation of the Charles River due to the adjacent Charles River Dam, it is served by water taxi services to Logan Airport and the Boston waterfront by two private companies. Scheduled ferry service was operated to Lovejoy Wharf as well. Two MBTA Boat routes - the F3 Lovejoy Wharf - Boston Navy Yard and F5 Lovejoy Wharf - World Trade Center via Moakley Courthouse - began operation in 1997 during Big Dig construction, they were discontinued on January 2005 due to low ridership. The F5X Lovejoy Wharf - World Trade Center Express route, which did not rely on MBTA funding, was run until February 24, 2006. Before North Union Station opened on the spot in 1893, there were four separate stations in the area: The Boston and Maine Railroad terminal was just north of Haymarket Square, between Canal Street and Haverhill Street, stretching most of the way to Traverse Street.

This approach was used by the Green Line and Orange Line and precessors. The other three were all on the north side of Causeway Street, with the first two in the area where North Station is now; the Boston and Lowell Railroad terminal was on the east side of Nashua Street, stretching east for about a block. Next was the Eastern Railroad terminal, across Causeway Street from Friend Street; the Fitchburg Railroad station was on the other side of the Boston and Maine Railroad approach, right next to Beverly Street, the approach to the Warren Bridge. Just south of North Station was the Canal Street Incline through which the Tremont Street Subway went from surface to subway, the Washington Street Tunnel connected to the Charlestown Elevated; the Tremont Street Subway was extended north from Park Street in 1898. It rose to the surface with a surface terminal at Causeway Street; the Main Line Elevated opened in 1901 with an elevated station at North Union Station. Elevated trains ran south through the Tremont Street Subway, north on the Charlestown Elevated, east along the waterfront on the Atlantic Avenue Elevated.

The elevated moved into its own tunnel in 1908. The Causeway Street Elevated opened in 1912, with an elevated streetcar station over Causeway Street; the project included a single-track platform for Atlantic Avenue Elevated shuttle trains. The original North Union Station was demolished in 1928 to make way for the Boston Garden, which included a new North Station as part of the design; the Atlantic Avenue elevated was reduced to a North Station-South Station shuttle by 1928 after an accident at Beach Street, closed in 1938. It was demolished in 1942. In 1959, a bomb exploded in a locker in the Main Line Elevated station, killing one M. T. A. Worker. Operations were suspended the rest of the day, the track was up and running the next day, contrary to public expectations. Further bomb threats were phoned in; until the 1960s, the station was the hub for long-distance B&M service to multiple locales north and west of Boston in conjunction with other railroads. Service cutbacks began in the 1950s, service soon dwindled down to commuter rail operations.

The last intercity service to Portland, Maine and to north of Concord, New Hampshire ended on January 4, 1965. By this

Shūmei Ōkawa

Shūmei Ōkawa was a Japanese nationalist, Pan-Asian writer and indicted war criminal. In the prewar period, he was known for his publications on Japanese history, philosophy of religion, Indian philosophy, colonialism, he is called a "right-wing" writer, although he described himself as anti-capitalist and rejected the label "right-wing". Ōkawa was born in Sakata, Japan in 1886. He graduated from Tokyo Imperial University in 1911, where he had studied Vedic literature and classical Indian philosophy. After graduation, Ōkawa worked for the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff doing translation work, he had a sound knowledge of German, English and Pali. He flirted with socialism in his college years, but in the summer of 1913 he read a copy of Sir Henry Cotton's New India, or India in transition which dealt with the contemporary political situation. After reading this book, Ōkawa abandoned "complete cosmopolitanism" for Pan-Asianism; that year articles by Anagarika Dharmapala and Maulavi Barkatullah appeared in the magazine Michi, published by Dōkai, a religious organization in which Ōkawa was to play a prominent part.

While he studied, he housed the Indian independence leader Rash Behari Bose. After years of study of foreign philosophies, he became convinced that the solution to Japan's pressing social and political problems lay in an alliance with Asian independence movements, a revival of pre-modern Japanese philosophy, a renewed emphasis on the kokutai principles. In 1918, Ōkawa went to work for the South Manchurian Railway Company, under its East Asian Research Bureau. Together with Ikki Kita he founded the nationalist discussion group and political club Yūzonsha. In the 1920s, he became an instructor of history and colonial policy at Takushoku University, where he was active in the creation of anti-capitalist and nationalist student groups. Meanwhile, he introduced Rudolf Steiner's theory of social threefolding to Japan. In 1926, Ōkawa published his most influential work: Japan and the Way of the Japanese, so popular that it was reprinted 46 times by the end of World War II. Ōkawa became involved in a number of attempted coups d'état by the Japanese military in the early 1930s, including the March Incident, for which he was sentenced to five years in prison in 1935.

Released after only two years, he re-joined the South Manchurian Railway Company before accepting a post as a professor at Hosei University in 1939. He continued to publish numerous books and articles, helping popularize the idea that a "clash of civilizations" between the East and West was inevitable, that Japan was destined to assume the mantle of liberator and protector of Asia against the United States and other Western nations. After World War II, the Allies prosecuted Ōkawa as a class-A war criminal. Of the twenty-eight people indicted with this charge, he was the only one who wasn't a military officer or government official; the Allies described him to the press as the "Japanese Goebbels" and claimed that he had long agitated for a war between Japan and the West. In pre-trial hearings, Okawa countered that he had translated and commented on Vladimir Solovyov's geopolitical philosophy in 1924, that in fact Pan-Asianism did not advocate for war. During the trial, Ōkawa behaved erratically – dressing in pajamas, sitting barefoot, hitting the bald head of the former prime minister Hideki Tōjō while shouting "Inder!

Kommen Sie!" in German, so on. Some heard him shout "This is act one of the comedy!" U. S. Army psychiatrist Daniel Jaffe reported he was unfit to stand trial. Therefore, the presiding judge Sir William Webb concluded that he was mentally ill and dropped the case against him. From the beginning of the tribunal, Ōkawa was saying that the court was a farce and not worthy of being called a legal court. Therefore, some people still believe. Ōkawa was transferred from the jail to a US Army hospital in Japan, which concluded that he had mental instability, caused by syphilis. He was transferred to the Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, a famous mental hospital, where he completed the third Japanese translation of the entire Quran, he was released from hospital in 1948. He spent the final years of his life writing a memoir, Anraku no Mon, reflecting on how he found peace in the mental hospital. In October 1957, Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru requested an audience with him during a brief visit to Japan.

The invitation was hand-delivered to Ōkawa's house by an Indian Embassy official, who found that Ōkawa was on his deathbed and was unable to leave the house. He died two months later; some issues in re-emerging Asia, 1922 A study of the Japanese spirit, 1924 A study of chartered colonisation companies, 1927 National History, 1931 2600 years of the Japanese history, 1939 History of Anglo-American Aggression in East Asia, 1941Best-seller in Japan during WW2Introduction to Islam, 1942 Quran, 1950 Calvocoressi, Peter. The Penguin History of the Second World War. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-028502-4. Jaffe, Eric. A curious madness: an American combat psychiatrist, a Japanese war crimes suspect, an unsolved mystery from World War II. New York: Scribner. ISBN 9781451612059. LCCN 2013040208. Retrieved 2014-01-20. Jansen, Marius B.. The Making of Modern Japan. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-00991-