1654 in science
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- Sicilian astronomer Giovanni Battista Hodierna publishes De systemate orbis cometici, deque admirandis coeli characteribus including a catalog of comets and nebulae.
- At the prompting of the Chevalier de Méré, Blaise Pascal corresponds with Pierre de Fermat on gambling problems, from which is born the theory of probability.
- May 8 – Otto von Guericke demonstrates the effectiveness of his vacuum pump and the power of atmospheric pressure using the Magdeburg hemispheres before Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, in Regensburg.
- December 27 – Jakob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (died 1705).
- prob. date – Eleanor Glanville, English entomologist (died 1709).
- August 31 – Ole Worm, Danish physician and antiquary (born 1588)
- October 18 – Nicholas Culpeper, English herbalist (born 1616)
- Giovanni de Galliano Pieroni, Italian military engineer and astronomer (born 1586)