1659 Punkaharju

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1659 Punkaharju
1659Punkaharju (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Punkaharju
Discovery [1]
Discovered byY. Väisälä
Discovery siteTurku Obs.
Discovery date28 December 1940
MPC designation(1659) Punkaharju
Named after
Punkaharju (region)[2]
1940 YL · 1930 QB
1937 EB · 1944 RE
1951 EG · 1953 NH
1957 KO · 1958 TS1
main-belt · (middle)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc86.68 yr (31,660 days)
Aphelion3.5066 AU
Perihelion2.0646 AU
2.7856 AU
4.65 yr (1,698 days)
0° 12m 43.2s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions28.010±0.599 km[5]
28.24±1.54 km[6]
31.21±2.9 km[7]
31.41 km (derived)[3]
5.01±0.02 h[8]
5.01±0.01 h[9]
5.01327±0.00005 h[10]
5.0138±0.0002 h[11]
5.028±0.007 h[11]
0.1963 (derived)[3]
SMASS = S[1] · S[3]
9.80[5] · 9.9[1][3] · 10.1[6][7] · 10.42±0.35[12]

1659 Punkaharju, provisional designation 1940 YL, is a stony Postremian asteroid from the middle region of the asteroid belt, approximately 30 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 28 December 1940, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at Turku Observatory in Southwest Finland.[13] It is named for the municipality of Punkaharju.[2]


Punkaharju is a member of the Postrema family (541),[4] a mid-sized central asteroid family of little more than 100 members.[14]:23 The S-type asteroid orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.1–3.5 AU once every 4 years and 8 months (1,698 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.26 and an inclination of 16° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] Punkaharju was first identified as 1930 QB at Uccle Observatory in 1930, extending the body's observation arc by 10 years prior to its official discovery observation.[13]

Rotation period[edit]

Between 2000 and 2011, several rotational lightcurves of Punkaharju were obtained from photometric observations by astronomers Brian Warner and Pierre Antonini. They gave a well-defined rotation period of 5.01 hours with a brightness variation between 0.26 and 0.43 magnitude (U=3/3/3).[8][9][11] In addition, a concurring period of 5.01327 hours was published in 2016, using the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue as the main-data source.[10] French CCD-specialist Cyril Cavadore also derived a less secure period of 5.028 hours from his observations in October 2005 (U=2-).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures between 28.01 and 31.21 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.165 and 0.271.[5][6][7] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.196 and a diameter of 31.41 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 9.9.[3]


This minor planet is named for the former municipality of Punkaharju, an isthmus region in southeastern Finland (also see Karelian Isthmus).[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3933).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1659 Punkaharju (1940 YL)" (2017-05-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1659) Punkaharju". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1659) Punkaharju. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 132. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1660. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1659) Punkaharju". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  8. ^ a b Warner, B. (June 2001). "Asteroid Photometry at the Palmer Divide Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 28: 30–32. Bibcode:2001MPBu...28...30W. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  9. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (January 2011). "Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (1): 63–65. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38...63W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1659) Punkaharju". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  13. ^ a b "1659 Punkaharju (1940 YL)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  14. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 December 2016.

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