Iowa in the American Civil War

The state of Iowa played a role during the American Civil War in providing food and troops for the Union army, though its contributions were overshadowed by larger and more populated eastern states. Iowa had become the 29th state in the Union on December 28, 1846, the state continued to attract many settlers, both native and foreign-born. Only the extreme northwestern part of the state remained a frontier area. With the development in the 1850s of the Illinois Central and the Chicago and North Western Railway, Iowa's fertile fields were linked with Eastern supply depots as the Civil War began. Manufacturing companies in the eastern part of the state, as well as farmers, could get their products to the Union army; the Civil War era brought considerable change to Iowa's politics. During the 1850s, the state's dominant Democratic Party developed serious internal problems, as well as being unsuccessful in getting the national Democratic Party to respond to their local needs. Iowans soon turned to the newly emerging Republican Party.

The new party opposed slavery and promoted land ownership and railroads, Iowa voted for Abraham Lincoln and other Republican politicians in 1860 and throughout the war, though there was a strong antiwar "Copperhead" movement among recent settlers of Southern origins. The Democratic party remained in places around the Mississippi River such as Dubuque, settled by German immigrants; as the Civil War erupted, Governor Samuel J. Kirkwood led efforts to raise and equip volunteer troops for the Federal service; the 1st Iowa Infantry was raised for three-months duty from May until August 1861. It helped secure the strategic Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in northern Missouri endured a series of forced marches across the state fighting with distinction in the Battle of Wilson's Creek, a task rewarded by the official Thanks of Congress, two Iowans would be awarded the Medal of Honor for their efforts in the fighting. There were no significant battles in Iowa, but the state sent large supplies of food to the armies and the eastern cities.

76,242 Iowa men served in the military. 13,001 died of wounds or disease. 8,500 Iowa men were wounded. Cemeteries throughout the South contain the remains of Iowa soldiers who fell during the war, with the largest concentration at Vicksburg National Cemetery. A number died in Confederate prison camps, including Andersonville prison. Though the total number of Iowans who served in the military during the Civil War seems small compared to the more populated eastern and southern states, no other state, north or south, had a higher percentage of its male population between the ages of 15 and 40 serve in the military during the course of the war. Iowa contributed 48 regiments of state infantry, 1 regiment of black infantry, 9 regiments of cavalry, 4 artillery batteries. In addition to these Federally mustered troops, the state raised a number of home guard or militia units, including the Northern Border Brigade and Southern Border Brigade for defense of the borders, but with a commission from governor Kirkwood authorizing the border brigades to cross into Missouri to pursue Confederate or Indian raiders as the case may be.

Both the Ho Chunk and the Santee band of the Sioux nation posed the biggest threat to Iowa's northwestern border. Other local units included the Sioux City Cavalry--a militia company which, was subsequently mustered into US service and deployed to Dakota Territory after the Santee Sioux Uprising of 1862 and became General Alfred Sully's Headquarters Guard during the Union Army's subsequent "Punitive Expeditions" against 700 renegade Santee Sioux in 1863 and 1864. Sully selected the Sioux City Cavalry as his escort and guard over several other cavalry units because of the previous experience of its members who had worked for years before the war as trappers and teamsters along the Military Road running from the US Army logistics depot at Sioux City northwest to the Dakota Territorial capital at Yankton and onward to Fort Randall which, at that time, was the largest US Army post on the upper Missouri river; as such these militia troopers were experienced with other Sioux bands--such as the Yankton and Yankonais--and knew their sign, their language, their customs.

The 6th Iowa Cavalry and one battalion of the 14th Iowa Infantry were deployed to Forts Randall and Berthold, Dakota Territory as part of the same campaigns against the Santee renegades. Sporadically, Confederate partisans and bushwhackers raided Iowa. One such incursion in the fall of 1864 was designed to disrupt the reelection of Abraham Lincoln. Near the Missouri border, many Iowans were pro-slavery, anti-Lincoln Confederate sympathizers, they provided a safe haven for guerrillas. On October 12, 1864, a dozen raiders disguised as Union soldiers terrorized Davis County, where they looted residences and kidnapped and murdered three Iowans near Bloomfield; the Keokuk National Cemetery was established as a final resting place for bodies from five local U. S. Army hospitals in Keokuk, it holds over 600 Union soldiers, 8 Confederate prisoners of war. Following the war, a number of veterans organizations, in particular the Grand Army of the Republic, played a prominent role in providing social functions, financial support, memorialization of the former soldiers.

The G. A. R. provided the funds and impetus for the construction of the Iowa Soldiers' Home in Marshalltown and other similar homes and hospitals, as well as or


Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, a form of the coastal rainbow trout, that can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.

Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.

These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.

However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live much longer than rainbow trout, which have