1667 in science
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- Johann Joachim Becher originates what will become known as phlogiston theory in his Physical Education.
History and philosophy of science
- Thomas Sprat publishes The History of the Royal-Society of London, for the Improving of Natural Knowledge.
Physiology and medicine
- June 15 – Jean-Baptiste Denys performs the first blood transfusion from a lamb into a boy.
- Robert Hooke demonstrates that the alteration of the blood in the lungs is essential for respiration.
- Thomas Willis publishes Pathologicae Cerebri, et nervosi generis specimen.
- Nicolas Steno publishes Elementorum Myologiae Specimen, seu Musculi Descriptio Geometrica. Cui accedunt canis carchariae dissectum caput, et dissectus piscis ex canum genere in Florence, providing a foundation for the study of muscle mechanics, the ovary (based on his dissection of dogfish), and the sedimentary theory of geology.
- April 29 (bapt.) – John Arbuthnot, Scottish-born polymath (died 1735)
- May 2 – Jacob Christoph Le Blon, German inventor of four-colour printing (died 1741)
- May 26 – Abraham de Moivre, French mathematician (died 1754)
- July 27 – Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (died 1748)
- April 3 – Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester, English inventor (born 1601?)
- April 10 – Jan Marek Marci, Bohemian physician (born 1595)
- June 5 – Grégoire de Saint-Vincent, Flemish mathematician (born 1584)
- probable date – Peter Mundy, English traveller (born c. 1596)
- Bowler, Peter J. (2005). Making modern science: A historical survey. University of Chicago Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780226068602.
- Richardson, Matthew (2001). The Penguin Book of Firsts. New Delhi: Penguin Books India. p. 184. ISBN 0-14-302771-9.
- Garboe, Axel (1954). Nicolaus Steno (Niels Stensen) and Erasmus Bartholinus: two 17th century Danish scientists and the foundation of exact geology and crystallography. Copenhagen: Reitzel.