1672 in science
- John Flamsteed determines the solar parallax from observations of Mars.
- Giovanni Cassini discovers Rhea, a satellite of Saturn.
- Sir Isaac Newton reads his first Optiks paper before the Royal Society of London.
- Robert Morison publishes Plantarum Umbelliferarum Distributio Nova, per Tabulas Cognationis et Affinitatis, ex Libra Naturae observata et detecta, the first monograph devoted to a specific group of plants, the Umbelliferae.
- Georg Mohr publishes the Mohr–Mascheroni theorem, that any geometric construction that can be performed by a compass and straightedge can be performed by a compass alone.
- Paul Barbette publishes Opera omnia medica et chirurgica.
- Isbrand van Diemerbroeck publishes the first edition of his Anatome corporis humani in Utrecht.
- Thomas Willis publishes the earliest English work on medical psychology, Two Discourses concerning The Soul of Brutes, Which is that of the Vital and Sensitive of Man.
- Dutch painter Jan van der Heyden improves the fire hose, with his brother Nicolaes, a hydraulic engineer.
- February 13 – Étienne François Geoffroy, French chemist (died 1731)
- August 2 – Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Swiss natural historian (died 1733)
- Ann Baynard, English natural philosopher (died 1697)
- March – Peter Blondeau, French-born pioneer of mechanised minting of coin
- April 26 – Lionel Lockyer, English quack doctor (born c. 1600)
- November 19 – Bishop John Wilkins, English natural philosopher, co-founder of the Royal Society (born 1614)
- late – Semyon Dezhnyov, Pomor navigator who in 1648 made the first recorded voyage through the Bering Strait (born c. 1605)
- Oliver, Francis Wall (1913). "Robert Morison 1620–1683...". Makers of British Botany. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–16.
- Mohr, Georg (1672). Euclides Danicus. Amsterdam: Jacob van Velsen.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- "Thomas Willis". Whonamedit?. Retrieved 2011-03-15.