Venera-D is a proposed Russian space mission to Venus that would include an orbiter and a lander to be launched in 2026 or 2031. The orbiter's prime objective is to perform observations with the use of a radar; the lander, based on the Venera design, would be capable of operating for a long duration on the planet's surface. The "D" in Venera-D stands for "dolgozhivushaya,". Venera-D will be the first Venus probe launched by the Russian Federation. Venera-D will serve as the flagship for a new generation of Russian-built Venus probes, culminating with a lander capable of withstanding the harsh Venerian environment for more than the 1½ hours logged by the Soviet probes; the surface of Venus experiences average temperatures of 462° Celsius, crushing 90 bar pressures, corroding clouds of carbon dioxide laced with sulfuric acid. Venera-D would be launched with either a Proton or Angara A5 rocket. In 2003, Venera-D was proposed to the Russian Academy of Sciences for its "wish list" of science projects to be included into the Federal Space Program in 2006–2015.
During the formulation of the mission concept in 2004, the launch of Venera-D was expected in 2013 and its landing on the surface of Venus in 2014. In its original conception, it had a large orbiter, a sub-satellite, two balloons, two small landers, a large long-lived lander. By 2011, the mission had been pushed back to 2018, scaled back to an orbiter with a subsatellite orbiter, a single lander with an expected 3-hour operation time. By the beginning of 2011, the Venera-D project entered Phase A stage of development. Following the loss of the Phobos-Grunt spacecraft in November 2011 and resulting delays in all Russian planetary projects, the implementation of the project was again delayed to no earlier than 2026. Lavochkin Association are leading the effort in the development of the mission concept architecture, it may include instruments from NASA. From 2018 to 2020, the second phase of the science activities between NASA and the Russian Space Research Institute will continue to refine the science concepts, the orbiter and lander mission architecture, as well as a detailed examination of the types of aerial platforms that could address key Venus science in situ.
Additional workshops will be held. From the standpoint of total mass delivered to Venus, the best launch opportunities occur in 2026 and 2031; the mission has an emphasis on the atmospheric superrotation, the geological processes that have formed and modified the surface, the mineralogical and elemental composition of surface materials, the chemical processes related to the interaction of the surface and the atmosphere. The orbiter's goals are Study of the dynamics and nature of superrotation, radiative balance, the nature of the greenhouse effect Characterize the thermal structure of the atmosphere, thermal tides, solar locked structures Measure the composition of the atmosphere, study the clouds, their structure, composition and chemistry Investigate the upper atmosphere, electrical activity and the gas escape rateThe lander's goals are Perform chemical analysis of surface materials and study the elemental composition of the surface, including radiogenic elements Study of interaction between the surface and the atmosphere Investigate the structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere down to the surface, including the abundances and isotopic ratios of the trace and noble gases Perform direct chemical analysis of the cloud aerosols Characterize the geology of local landforms at different scales To achieve the mission's science goals, the team is assessing the following instruments for the orbiter: PFS-VD Fourier transform spectrometer, 250–2000 cm-1 λ=5-45 μm, Δν = 1 cm-1 UV mapping spectrometer, 190–490 nm, Δʎ=0.3 nm MM-radiometer, Millimeter Wave Radiometer.
Lander instrumentsThe lander will carry between 100-120 kg of instruments, that may include: Mossbauer Spectrometer / APXS Chemical analyses package: Gas Chromatograph & Mass Spectrometer Meteorological suite Sample acquisition, processing In 2014, Russian scientists asked NASA if the U. S. space agency would be interested in collaborating some instruments to the mission. Under this potential collaboration, the study team "Venera-D Joint Science Definition Team" was established in 2015. Venera-D could incorporate some US components, including balloons, a subsatellite for plasma measurements, or a long-lived surface station on the lander. Any potential collaboration is still under discussion,Potential science instruments NASA could contribute include a Raman spectrometer and an Alpha-Proton X-Ray Spectrometer; the three types of atmospheric maneuverable platforms under consideration by NASA include super pressure balloons, altitude controlled balloons, the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform semi-buoyant aircraft, solar powered aircraft.
The solar-powered Venus At
See Athens and Athens for more places called "Athens". New Athens is a village in St. Clair County, United States. Based upon common usage, the'A' is always sounded with a long vowel, rather than a short vowel, by its residents, unlike the most used English pronunciation of the city in Greece; the population was 2,054 at the 2010 census. New Athens sits on the Kaskaskia River and was called Athens; the village was laid out in 1836 and incorporated in 1866. The name change to New Athens came in 1868 after it was discovered there was an Athens in another part of the state; the area is known including annual boat races and fishing derby. It is the home of the Peabody River King Conservation Area; the Village is the home of New Athens Community Unit School District #60 - New Athens Township High School Yellow Jackets. The school website, http://www.na60.org provides additional references. Since New Athens is in the Metro East area of St. Louis, it has a place in the local brewery history. New Athens was home to Mound City Brewery until the 1950s.
Baseball is a major sport in the area and the village has produced a number of athletes who have played professionally. One of the favorite sons is a former Major League Baseball outfielder and manager. Other former major leaguers with New Athens ties include Larry Stahl, Mickey Haefner, Warren Hacker and Rich Hacker. New Athens is home to several churches, including St. Agatha Catholic Church, St. John United Church of Christ, St. Paul Lutheran Church, The United Methodist Church of New Athens, First Baptist Church; the first organized settlement in what would become the future town of New Athens, Illinois was Manville Ferry named after early settler and ferryman on the Kaskaskia River, Ira Manville. Manville ran the ferry until his death in 1821. By 1818, the third generation of the Sturdivant family counterfeiters, known as the "Sturdivant Gang", were organized by Roswell S. Sturdivant and his brother, Merrick Sturdivant, who led the criminal organization, would base their southwestern Illinois counterfeiting operations at Manville Ferry and the other part of their criminal operation in southeastern Illinois on the Ohio River at Sturdivant's Fort, in Pope County, now present-day Rosiclare, Hardin County, Illinois.
New Athens is located at 38°19′22″N 89°52′29″W. According to the 2010 census, New Athens has a total area of 2.129 square miles, of which 1.92 square miles is land and 0.209 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,981 people, 774 households, 541 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,148.3 people per square mile. There were 819 housing units at an average density of 474.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.98% White, 0.76% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 774 households out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00.
In the village, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $39,625, the median income for a family was $49,236. Males had a median income of $36,307 versus $22,462 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,627. About 6.8% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Tyler Brandenburger, silver medalist at the 2019 Winter X Games. Edwin Cockrell, shot putter silver medalist in the 2004 Paralympics Sturdivant Gang, 19th Century counterfeiters Rich Hacker, coach for the St. Louis Cardinals and Toronto Blue Jays Whitey Herzog and manager with the St. Louis Cardinals and Kansas City Royals List of municipalities in Illinois Official website http://www.na60.org http://www.city-data.com/city/New-Athens-Illinois.html http://illinois.hometownlocator.com/il/st.-clair/new-athens.cfm
Harestanes Amateur Football Club are a Scottish amateur football club from the Harestanes area of Kirkintilloch, East Dunbartonshire. Formed in 1981, they play their home matches at the Merkland Playing Fields and their colours are red with yellow and navy trim. Upon their formation in 1981 the club competed in a local Sunday football league, before transferring to Saturday football in the Stirling and District League in 1982, they won promotion in three consecutive seasons so that by the 1985–86 season they were in the First Division, which they won at the first time of asking. By 1989 they had switched from the Stirling and District League to the Central Scottish Amateur Football League, in which they still compete today. In 1998 they won the Premier Division of the Central Scottish League for the first time, have won it on another four occasions, in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2015. In 2002 they won the Scottish Amateur Cup at Hampden Park when they defeated Dumbarton Academy Former Pupils 4–2 in the final.
They retained the trophy the following year, beating Newmilns Vesuvius 1–0 in the final, again at Hampden Park. In 2015, Harestanes won the Scottish Amateur Cup for a third time, which under new rules introduced that year meant they became the first winners of the trophy to qualify for the senior Scottish Cup, they made their Scottish Cup debut in a preliminary round tie in August 2015. The match was a home tie for Harestanes, but with Merklands being deemed unsuitable, it was played at Duncansfield Park, Kilsyth, in front of three hundred spectators. Official website
Metamorphosis I is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher, first printed in May, 1937; this piece is printed on two sheets. The concept of this work is to morph one image into a tessellated pattern gradually to alter the outlines of that pattern to become an altogether different image. From left to right, the image begins with a depiction of the coastal Italian town of Atrani; the outlines of the architecture morph to a pattern of three-dimensional blocks. These blocks slowly become a tessellated pattern of cartoon-like figures in oriental attire. Metamorphosis II Metamorphosis III Regular Division of the Plane Locher, J. L.. The Magic of M. C. Escher. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-6720-0
Mian Muhammad Shehbaz Sharif is a Pakistani politician, the current Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly of Pakistan, in office since 20 August 2018. He has been a member of the National Assembly since 13 August 2018 and is the current President of the Pakistan Muslim League-N. Previously, he has served as the Chief Minister of Punjab three times in his political career making him the longest serving Chief Minister of Punjab. Sharif was elected to the Punjab Provincial Assembly in 1988 and to the National Assembly in 1990, he was again named Leader of the Opposition. Elected a third time in 1997, Sharif was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Punjab on 20 February 1997. After a military coup deposed the government in 1999, Sharif spent years of self-exile in Saudi Arabia, returning to Pakistan in 2007. Sharif was appointed Chief Minister for a second term after the PML-N's victory in the province in the 2008 general elections, he was elected as Chief Minister of Punjab for third time in 2013.
Shehbaz Sharif was born on 23 September 1951 in Lahore, Pakistan. According to the News International, he was born on 23 September 1950, his father, Muhammad Sharif, was an upper-middle-class businessman and industrialist whose family had emigrated from Anantnag in Kashmir for business, settled in the village of Jati Umra in Amritsar district, Punjab at the beginning of the twentieth century. His mother's family came from Pulwama. After the movement led by Jinnah and his struggle to create Pakistan in 1947, his parents migrated from Amritsar to Lahore. Sharif received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Lahore. After graduation, he joined his family owned Ittefaq Group and got elected president of Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry in 1985, he has Abbas Sharif and Nawaz Sharif. Nawaz is a three-time elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, his sister-in-law, Kulsoom Nawaz Sharif, was the First Lady of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms. Sharif married to his cousin, Nusrat Shehbaz in 1973, they had four children: Suleman, Hamza and Rabia.
In 2003, Sharif married to his second wife Tehmina Durrani. He lives at his ancestral home in Raiwind Palace. Sharif is a businessman by profession and jointly owns Ittefaq Group, a multimillion-dollar steel conglomerate. In 2013, it was noted. Sharif began his political career after getting elected to the Provincial Assembly of Punjab from Constituency PP-122 as a candidate of Islami Jamhoori Ittehad in 1988 general election, he defeated a candidate of Pakistan Peoples Party. However his term prematurely ended in 1990, he was re-elected to the Provincial Assembly of Punjab from Constituency PP-124 as a candidate of IJI in 1990 general election. He defeated a candidate of Pakistan Democratic Alliance. In the same election, he was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from Constituency NA-96 as a candidate of IJI, he defeated Jehangir Bader. He vacated the Provincial Punjab Assembly seat to retain his National Assembly seat, his term prematurely ended in 1993. He was re-elected to the Provincial Assembly of Punjab from Constituency PP-125 as a candidate of Pakistan Muslim League in 1993 general election.
He received 28,068 votes and defeated a candidate of PPP. In the same election, he was re-elected to the National Assembly from Constituency NA-96 as a candidate of PML-N, he defeated Yousuf Salahuddin. He retained his Provincial Punjab Assembly seat. Shortly after the election, he was elected Leader of Opposition in the Provincial Assembly of Punjab. During his tenure as leader of the opposition, he remained in the United Kingdom for some years due for medical treatment. In his absence, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi was made acting leader of the opposition in the Punjab Assembly, his term as Member of the Punjab Assembly and the Leader of the Opposition prematurely ended in November 1996 when the assemblies were dissolved. He was re-elected to the Provincial Assembly of Punjab from Constituency PP-125 as a candidate of PML-N in 1997 general election, he received 25,013 votes and defeated a candidate of PPP. In the same election, he was re-elected to the National Assembly from Constituency NA-96 as a candidate of PML-N.
He defeated Hanif Ramay. He was elected as the Chief Minister of Punjab for the first time and was sworn in as 13th Chief Minister of Punjab on 20 February 1997. During his tenure as Chief Minister of Punjab, he was praised for his good governance in the province because of his focus on health, education and industrial sectors, he undertook several development projects in Lahore and launched a crackdown on criminals across the province to maintain law and order in the province. He held his office until 12 October 1999 when was removed from the post of Chief Minister in the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état. Following the coup he was imprisoned. In December 2000, he along with his immediate family members was exiled forcibly to Saudi Arabia following the request of the Saudi royal family. While in exile in Saudi Arabia, Sharif was elected as the President of PML-N in August 2002 and moved to the United Kingdom in mid-2003 for medical treatment. In 1999, a complainant Saeeduddin lodged FIR and accused Sharif of allowing the Sabzazar police, as the Chief Minister of the Punjab, to kill his son along with other men in a fake