1682 Karel

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1682 Karel
1682Karel (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Karel
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 2 August 1949
Designations
MPC designation (1682) Karel
Named after
Karel van Houten
(son of astronomers)
Cornelis and Ingrid[2]
1949 PH · 1929 SD
1939 RK · 1946 WC
1949 QQ · 1949 QX1
1949 SL · 1959 PH
1988 CR3
main-belt · Flora[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 87.39 yr (31,918 days)
Aphelion 2.6685 AU
Perihelion 1.8085 AU
2.2385 AU
Eccentricity 0.1921
3.35 yr (1,223 days)
106.49°
0° 17m 39.48s / day
Inclination 4.0276°
325.78°
9.9066°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 4.80±0.55 km[4]
7.267±0.195 km[5]
7.47 km (calculated)[3]
3.37485±0.00003 h[6]
3.37485±0.00005 h[7]
0.24 (assumed)[3]
0.278±0.027[5]
0.531±0.124[4]
S[3]
12.70[5] · 12.8[1][3] · 12.82±0.32[8] · 12.90[4]

1682 Karel, provisional designation 1949 PH, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 7.5 kilometers in diameter.

It was discovered on 2 August 1949, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, and later named after the son of Dutch astronomer couple Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten.[2][9]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Karel is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest collisional populations of stony asteroids in the inner main-belt. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.8–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,223 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.19 and an inclination of 4° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] In 1929, Karel was first identified as 1929 SD at Heidelberg, extending the body's observation arc by 20 years prior to its official discovery observation.[9]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Rotation period[edit]

Astronomers François Colas, Jean Lecacheux, Federico Manzini and Raoul Behrend obtained a rotational lightcurve of Karel from photometric observations in January 2008. It gave a well-defined rotation period of 3.37485 hours with a brightness variation of 0.47 in magnitude (U=3).[6] An identical period was modeled from the Lowell Photometric Database (U=n.a.).[7]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Karel measures 4.80 and 7.27 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo of 0.278 and 0.531, respectively.[4][5] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.24 – derived from 8 Flora, the largest member and namesake of this family – and calculates a diameter of 7.47 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.8.[3]

Naming[edit]

This minor planet was named after Karel van Houten, son of Dutch astronomers Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten of the Leiden Observatory.[2] Together with Ingrid, Reinmuth discovered the minor planet 1691 Oort in 1956. Reinmuth also named his two discoveries, 1673 van Houten and 1674 Groeneveld, after the prolific couple of Dutch astronomers,[10][11] the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 2901).[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1682 Karel (1949 PH)" (2017-02-15 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1682) Karel. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 134. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1682) Karel". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1682) Karel". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "1682 Karel (1949 PH)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  10. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1673) van Houten. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 133. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  11. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1674) Groeneveld. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 133. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 

External links[edit]