The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Thomas von Westen
Thomas von Westen was a Norwegian Lutheran priest and missionary. He was born in Trondheim in Sør-Trøndelag, Norway and he was educated for the priesthood in Copenhagen where he took his Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1698. He received his Cand. theol. in 1699, after completing his education, he started working as a priest in Helgeland. In 1709, he was appointed vicar of Veøy in Romsdal and he was an active participant of the pietist association Syvstjernen along with his friend Nils Engelhart. He was a pioneer of Christian mission among Sami people in Norway and he undertook three trips to northern Norway between 1716-1723. He founded the school Seminarium scholasticum in Trondheim in 1717, the school closed after Westen died in 1727. Seminarium scholasticum was a model for the Seminarium Lapponicum which operated between 1752-1774, nærøy manuscript Sæter, Ivar Thomas von Westen Finnefolket sande ven, Læreren og videnskapsmanden Grankvist, Rolf Seminarium Lapponicum Fredericianum i Trondheims-miljoet ISBN8251918987
Norsk biografisk leksikon
Norsk biografisk leksikon is the largest Norwegian biographical encyclopedia. The first edition was issued between 1921 and 1983, including 19 volumes and 5,100 articles and it was published by Aschehoug with economic support from the state. Kunnskapsforlaget bought the rights to NBL1 from Aschehoug in 1995, the project had economic support from the Fritt Ord Foundation and the Ministry of Culture, and the second edition was launched in the years 1999-2005, including 10 volumes and ca.5,700 articles. In 2006 the work for an edition of NBL2 began. In 2009 an Internet edition, with access, was released by Kunnskapsforlaget together with the general-purpose Store norske leksikon. The electronic edition features additional biographies, and updates about dates of death of biographees, apart from that, the vast body of text is unaltered from the printed version. This is a list of volumes in the edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon. Published 2005 Volume 10, Wilberg–Aavik, plus extra material, published 2005 This is a list of volumes in the first edition of Norsk biografisk leksikon.
Published 1923 Volume 2, Bjørnstad–Christian Frederik, published 1925 Volume 3, Christiansen–Eyvind Urarhorn. Published 1931 Volume 6, Helland–Lars Jensen, published 1934 Volume 7, Lars O. Jensen–Krefting. Published 1940 Volume 10, Narve–Harald C, published 1949 Volume 11, Oscar Pedersen–Ross. Published 1966 Volume 16, Sørensen–Alf Torp, published 1969 Volume 17, Eivind Torp–Vidnes. Published 1975 Volume 18, Vig–Henrik Wergeland, published 1977 Volume 19, N. Wergeland–Øyen