1683 in science
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- September 17 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek writes a letter to the Royal Society of London describing "animalcules" – the first known description of protozoa.
- Based on his discovery of the resultant, Seki Takakazu starts to develop elimination theory in the Kai-fukudai-no-hō (解伏題之法,); and to express the resultant, he develops the notion of the determinant.
- Dutch physician Willem ten Rhijne publishes Dissertatio de Arthritide: Mantissa Schematica: De Acupunctura in London, introducing the West to acupuncture and moxibustion.
- Vauban's manual on fortification, Le Directeur-Général des fortifications, begins publication at The Hague.
- October 15 – First meeting of the Dublin Philosophical Society, established by William Molyneux.
- February 28 – Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur, French physicist (died 1757)
- December 23 – François Nicole, French mathematician (died 1758)
- Approximate date – Edmund Weaver, English astronomer (died 1748)
- November 10
- Anderson, Douglas. "Wrote Letter 39 of 1683-09-17 (AB 76) to Francis Aston". Lens on Leeuwenhoek. Archived from the original on 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- Eves, Howard (1990). An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders College. p. 405. ISBN 0-03-029558-0.
- Jones, Greta; Malcolm, Elizabeth (1999), Medicine, Disease and the State in Ireland, 1650–1940, Cork University Press, p. 91, ISBN 978-1-85918-230-7
- Wilde, W. R. (1844–47). "Memoir of the Dublin Philosophical Society of 1683". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. 3: 160–76. JSTOR 20489545.
- Spearman, T. D. (1992). "400 Years of Mathematics". Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 2014-01-09.