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168 BC

Year 168 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Crassus; the denomination 168 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. The king of Illyria, Gentius, is defeated at Scodra by a Roman force under Lucius Anicius Gallus and brought to Rome as a captive to be interned in Iguvium; this loss removes Illyria as an important ally for Macedonia and weakens Perseus of Macedon in his battle with Rome. The Roman general, Lucius Aemilius Paulus, is elected consul and arrives in Thessaly to lead the Roman army, trapped by Perseus' forces. June 22 – The Battle of Pydna gives Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Paulus a crushing victory over Perseus and his Macedonian forces, thus ending the Third Macedonian War. Perseus is captured by the Romans and will spend the rest of his life in captivity at Alba Fucens, near Rome; the Macedonian kingdom is broken up by the Romans into four smaller states, all the Greek cities which have offered aid to Macedonia just in words, are punished.

The Romans take hundreds of prisoners from the leading families of Macedonia, including the historian Polybius. The joint rulers of Egypt, Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II and their sister Cleopatra II send a renewed request to Rome for aid; the fleet of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV wins a victory off Cyprus, whose governor surrenders the island to him. Antiochus IV invades Egypt again and occupies Lower Egypt and his forces camp outside Alexandria. However, the Roman ambassador in Alexandria, Gaius Popillius Laenas, intervenes, he presents Antiochus IV with an ultimatum that he evacuate Cyprus immediately. Antiochus, taken by surprise, asks for time to consider. Popillius, draws a circle in the earth around the king with his walking stick and demands an unequivocal answer before Antiochus leaves the circle. Fearing the consequences of a war with Rome, the king agrees to comply with the ambassador's demands. In return, the Romans agree that Antiochus IV can retain southern Syria, to which Egypt has laid claim, thus enabling Antiochus IV to preserve the territorial integrity of his realm.

Jason removes Menelaus as High Priest in Jerusalem, which Antiochus IV regards as an affront to his majesty. Tiberius Gracchus, Roman politician who would create turmoil in the Republic through his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms in the Roman Republic Caecilius Statius, Roman comic poet and imitator of the Greek playwright Menander Jia Yi, Chinese statesman and poet

Tundra orbit

A Tundra orbit is a elliptical geosynchronous orbit with a high inclination, an orbital period of one sidereal day, a typical eccentricity between 0.2 and 0.3. A satellite placed in this orbit spends most of its time over a chosen area of the Earth, a phenomenon known as apogee dwell, which makes them well suited for communications satellites serving high latitude regions; the ground track of a satellite in a Tundra orbit is a closed figure 8 with a smaller loop over either the northern or southern hemisphere. This differentiates them from Molniya orbits designed to service high-latitude regions, which have the same inclination but half the period and do not loiter over a single region. Tundra and Molniya orbits are used to provide high-latitude users with higher elevation angles than a geostationary orbit; this is desirable as broadcasting to these latitudes from a geostationary orbit requires considerable power due to the low elevation angles, the extra distance and atmospheric attenuation that comes with it.

Sites located above 81° latitude are unable to view geocentric satellites at all, as a rule of thumb, elevation angles of less than 10° can cause problems, depending on the communications frequency. Elliptical orbits provide an alternative to geostationary ones, as they remain over their desired high-latitude regions for long periods of time at the apogee, their convenience is mitigated by cost, however: two satellites are required to provide continuous coverage from a Tundra orbit. A ground station receiving data from a satellite constellation in a elliptical orbit must periodically switch between satellites and deal with varying signal strengths and Doppler shifts as the satellites range changes throughout its orbit; these changes are less pronounced for satellites in a Tundra orbit, given their increased distance from the surface, making tracking and communication more efficient. Additionally, unlike the Molniya orbit, a satellite in a Tundra orbit avoids passing through the Van Allen belts.

Despite these advantages the Tundra orbit is used less than a Molniya orbit in part due to the higher launch energy required. In 2017 the ESA Space Debris office released a paper proposing that a Tundra-like orbit be used as a disposal orbit for old high-inclination geosynchronous satellites, as opposed to traditional graveyard orbits. A typical Tundra orbit has the following properties: Inclination: 63.4° Argument of perigee: 270° Period: 1436 minutes Eccentricity: 0.24–0.4 Semi-major axis: 42,164 km In general, the oblateness of the Earth perturbs a satellite's argument of perigee such that it changes with time. If we only consider the first-order coefficient J 2, the perigee will change according to equation 1, unless it is corrected with station-keeping thruster burns. Where i is the orbital inclination, e is the eccentricity, n is mean motion in degrees per day, J 2 is the perturbing factor, R E is the radius of the earth, a is the semimajor axis, ω ˙ is in degrees per day. To avoid this expenditure of fuel, the Tundra orbit uses an inclination of 63.4°, for which the factor is zero, so that there is no change in the position of perigee over time.

This is called the critical inclination, an orbit designed in this manner is called a frozen orbit. An argument of perigee of 270° places apogee at the northernmost point of the orbit. An argument of perigee of 90° would serve the high southern latitudes. An argument of perigee of 0° or 180° would cause the satellite to dwell over the equator, but there would be little point to this as this could be better done with a conventional geostationary orbit; the period of one sidereal day ensures. This is controlled by the semi-major axis of the orbit; the eccentricity is chosen for the dwell time required, changes the shape of the ground track. A Tundra orbit has an eccentricity of about 0.2. The exact height of a satellite in a Molniya orbit varies between missions, but a typical orbit will have a perigee of 25,000 kilometres and an apogee of 39,700 kilometres, for a semi-major axis of 46,000 kilometres. From 2000 to 2016, Sirius Satellite Radio, now part of Sirius XM Holdings, operated a constellation of three satellites in Tundra orbits for satellite radio.

The RAAN and mean anomaly of each satellite were offset by 120° so that when one satellite moved out of position, another had passed perigee and was ready to take over. The constellation was developed to better reach consumers in far northern latitudes, reduce the impact of urban canyons and required only 130 repeaters compared to 800 for a geostationary system. After Sirius' merger with XM it changed the design and orbit of the FM-6 replacement satellite from a tundra to a geostationary one; this supplemented the geostationary FM-5, in 2016 Sirius discontinued broadcasting from tundra orbits. The Sirius satellites were the only commercial satellites to use a Tundra orbit

Comfort Women Memorial Peace Garden

Comfort Women Memorial Peace Garden is a memorial to the World War II comfort women, located at the Fairfax County Government Center in Fairfax County, Virginia. The unveiling ceremony was on May 30, 2014. After the ribbon-cutting ceremony, representing the comfort women, were released into the sky to honor the comfort women. There was a dance performance to honor the comfort women. Park Jeong-sook, director of the Peace Mission Dance Group, performed a dance at the unveiling ceremony. Kang Il-chul, a former comfort woman, visited for the unveiling ceremony. Kang touched the Memorial during the unveiling ceremony. Kang said, "I thank Americans who love my fellow Koreans; the Japanese government should make an apology and the Korean government should address the issue more aggressively." The one-year anniversary was on May 21, 2015. During the one-year anniversary, the Peace Mission Korean Dance Group, directed by Park Jeong-sook, performed. Chung In-sook, who attended the one-year anniversary, said, "I was in the fifth grade during the Japanese occupation, the teacher came to class and said one person was needed to work in a factory in Japan."

Chung said, "We were told. One girl volunteered, she was 12 or 13, never came back." The Memorial was a collaboration between the Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues, Inc. and Fairfax County, led by Sharon Bulova, Chairman of the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors. The Memorial was unveiled after a fundraising by Korean American activists. A group of Korean Americans led the project to establish the Memorial; the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors said that the Memorial "will serve as a lasting reminder and an affirmation to the world that all crimes against humanity, such as human trafficking, will not be condoned or tolerated." Sharon Bulova, Fairfax County Board of Supervisors Chairman, said, "Human trafficking is a serious issue on all corners of the globe, including right here in the United States and in Fairfax County." Bulova said, "The purpose of this memorial is to commemorate the Comfort Women of World War II and draw attention to the broader issue of human trafficking occurring all over the world."


Tamins is a village and a municipality in the Imboden Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Tamins is first mentioned in 1224 as Tuminne. In 1225 it was mentioned in 1399 as Tumins. Tamins has an area, as of 2006, of 40.7 km2. Of this area, 16.5 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 1.4% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Trins sub-district, of the Imboden district, after 2017 it was part of the Imboden Region, it is a small settlement north of the confluence of the Vorderrhein. It consists of the village of Tamins and since 1803 the village of Reichenau at the confluence of Hinterrhein and Vorderrhein and the Castle of Reichenau. is located in the municipality. Tamins has a population of 1,217; as of 2008, 13.0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -5.5%. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 50.7 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Tamins is.

85 people or 7.3% are 10 to 14, 67 people or 5.7% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 136 people or 11.7 % of the population are between 29 years old. 179 people or 15.3% are 30 to 39, 217 people or 18.6% are 40 to 49, 166 people or 14.2% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 105 people or 9.0% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 55 people or 4.7% are 70 to 79, there are 27 people or 2.3% who are 80 to 89, there is 1 person, 90 to 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CVP. In Tamins about 78% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Tamins has an unemployment rate of 0.95%. As of 2005, there were 57 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 10 businesses involved in this sector. 61 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 17 businesses in this sector. 93 people are employed with 33 businesses in this sector.

From the 2000 census, 365 or 31.3% are Roman Catholic, while 633 or 54.2% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are less than 5 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 18 individuals who belong to another Christian church. There are 30. There are 10 individuals who belong to another church, 84 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 27 individuals did not answer the question; the historical population is given in the following table: Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most common and Italian being third. Tamins has an average of 122.6 days of rain per year and on average receives 1,115 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is August. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 12.6 days. The driest month of the year is October with an average of 70 mm of precipitation over 12.6 days. Rhaetian Railway operate services to Reichenau-Tamins nearby. Media related to Tamins at Wikimedia Commons Tamins in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Hollywood Treasure

Hollywood Treasure is an American, reality television series that began airing on SyFy, October 27, 2010, which follows a Hollywood, California-based appraiser named Joe Maddalena and his team as they track down and help auction off valuable film and pop culture memorabilia. Joe Maddalena – "Treasure Hunter", Host/Owner of Profiles In History Brian Chanes – Head of Acquisitions/Consignment Relations Jon Mankuta – Special Projects Manager Tracey McCall – Client Relations/Special Events Coordinator Jesse D'Angelo – Prop Maker/Specialist Cherry Davis – Receptionist Stacey Roman – Auctioneer David Hinckley of the New York Daily News wrote "Hollywood Treasure will intrigue film junkies and memorabilia collectors. For the rest of us, it's breezy amusement about a world that, like the movies themselves, we will always be watching from the audience". Brian Lowry of Variety wrote that "we've seen this movie before, dozens of times, in more glamorous settings, and having each half-hour conclude with an auction doesn't foster much suspense".

Patty Miranda of wrote "For those who wish there was a Hollywood-themed version of American Pickers, Hollywood Treasure scratches that itch as it returns for a second season". Official website Hollywood Treasure on IMDb Hollywood Treasure at Hollywood Treasure at TV Guide


Leppävirta is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the Northern Savonia region; the municipality has a population of 9,636 and covers an area of 1,519.64 square kilometres of which 383.62 km2 is water. The population density is 8.48 inhabitants per square kilometre. Neighbour municipalities are Heinävesi, Kuopio, Pieksämäki, Suonenjoki and Varkaus; the municipality is unilingually Finnish. Sorsakoski, Häikiä, Häyry, Lylymäki, Niinimäki, Oravikoski and Saahkarlahti. Reino Soijärvi J-M Spriikonen Jorma Hynninen Pentti Pekkarinen Jukka Vesterinen Rakel Kansanen Adolf Tillaeus Heikki Soisalo Kalle Tähtelä Leppävirta is twinned with: Storfors in Sweden Dovre in Norway Schwerte in Germany Orissaare in Estonia Notes Media related to Leppävirta at Wikimedia Commons Municipality of Leppävirta – Official website