He or she is the chief public prosecutor for Scotland and all prosecutions on indictment are conducted by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, nominally in the Lord Advocates name. The officeholder is one of the Great Officers of State of Scotland, the current Lord Advocate is The Rt Hon. James Wolffe, QC. The office of Advocate to the monarch is an ancient one, the first recognised Lord Advocate was Sir John Ross of Montgrenan, recorded in 1483 as serving King James III. Her Majestys Government is now advised on Scots law by the Advocate General for Scotland, the Lord Advocate is not head of the Faculty of Advocates, that position is held by the Dean of the Faculty of Advocates. Until devolution in 1999, all Lord Advocates were, by convention, members of the United Kingdom government, since devolution, the Lord Advocate has been an automatically ex officio member of the Scottish Government. From 1999 until 2007, the Lord Advocate attended the weekly Scottish Cabinet meetings, after the 2007 election, the new First Minister Alex Salmond decided that Lord Advocate would no longer attend the Scottish Cabinet, stating he wished to de-politicise the post.
Until devolution, all Lord Advocates were, by convention, members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords to allow them to speak for the Government and those who were not already members of either house received a life peerage on appointment. Appointments as Senators of the College of Justice were formerly made on the nomination of the Lord Advocate, every Lord Advocate between 1842 and 1967 was appointed to the bench, either on demitting office or at a date. Many Lord Advocates in fact nominated themselves for appointment as Lord President of the Court of Session or as Lord Justice Clerk, the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is headed by the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland, and is the public prosecution service in Scotland. It carries out functions which are equivalent to the coroner in common law jurisdictions. Incorporated within the Crown Office is the Legal Secretariat to the Lord Advocate, the Crown Agent is the principal legal advisor to the Lord Advocate on prosecution matters.
He or she acts as Chief Executive for the Department. At trials in the High Court in Edinburgh, they attend as instructing solicitor and they are assisted by other senior legal and administrative staff. Whilst the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General continue as public prosecutors the principle of separation of powers seems compromised, the potential for a conflict of interest always exists. Resolution of these circumstances would entail an amendment of the contained within the Scotland Act 1998. The judges of Scotlands highest court came to share this view and they noted various ways in which the Lord Advocates roles had caused problems for the judicial system, including the ability to challenge. Virtually any act of a prosecutor has led to a plethora of disputed issues, with delays to the holding of trials and to the hearing. While not specifically favouring any of the three, they noted that the proposal was radical enough to generate considerable controversy
Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian
Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian PC, known as the 4th Earl of Lothian from 1675 to 1701, was a Scottish nobleman. He was styled Lord Kerr until 1661 and Lord Newbattle from 1661 to 1675, the eldest son of William Kerr, 3rd Earl of Lothian, he was born at Newbattle, Midlothian. He left Scotland and was educated at Leyden, and he unsuccessfully claimed the earldom of Roxburghe in 1658. Lord Newbattle was a volunteer in the Dutch War of 1673 and he succeeded his father in the earldom in 1675. Sworn a Privy Counsellor in January 1686, he was removed by James II in September, Lothian supported the Glorious Revolution and sat in the Convention of Estates of Scotland. He was appointed Lord Justice General of Scotland in 1689, holding the office until his death, in the same year, he succeeded his uncle Charles as Earl of Ancram. However, the Assembly proved hostile, and the proposal was not taken up and he was created Marquess of Lothian on 23 June 1701, and was appointed Justice-General and a commissioner to treat for the union of Scotland and England in 1702.
He did not see the project out, as he died in the following year and he is buried in the family vault of Newbattle Church, Scotland
1691 in Ireland
July 12 - Williamite War in Ireland, Battle of Aughrim in County Galway, Protestant Williamite forces led by Godert de Ginkell decisively defeat Jacobites under the Marquis de St Ruth. July 22 - Surrender and treaty of Galway, august–October - Williamite War in Ireland, Siege of Limerick. October 3 - Treaty of Limerick ends the Williamite War and its terms are immediately broken by the English. December 22 - The Flight of the Wild Geese begins, as Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan leads 19,000 Irish soldiers on ships to France, sir William Pettys Political Anatomy of Ireland is first published, posthumously in Dublin. Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill, an Irish language poet, in Churchtown, County Cork
1691 in England
Events from the year 1691 in the Kingdom of England. Co-monarchs – William III and Mary II April – John Tillotson enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury,9 April – a fire at the Palace of Whitehall in London destroys its Stone Gallery. June – first performance of the semi-opera King Arthur with a libretto by John Dryden,18 September – War of the Grand Alliance and Dutch forces defeated by the French at the Battle of Leuze. 3 October – the Treaty of Limerick ends the Williamite War in Ireland, the Flight of the Wild Geese – the departure of the Jacobite army – follows
History of Scotland
The History of Scotland is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period, roughly 10,000 years ago. Prehistoric Scotland entered the Neolithic Era about 4000 BC, the Bronze Age about 2000 BC, and the Iron Age around 700 BC. Scotlands recorded history began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, North of this was Caledonia, whose people were known in Latin as Picti, the painted ones. Constant risings forced Romes legions back, Hadrians Wall attempted to seal off the Roman south, the latter was swiftly abandoned and the former overrun, most spectacularly during the Great Conspiracy of the 360s. As Rome finally withdrew from Britain, Gaelic raiders called the Scoti began colonizing Western Scotland, according to 9th- and 10th-century sources, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata was founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, the Irish missionary Columba founded a monastery on Iona and introduced the previously pagan Scoti, towards the end of the 8th century, the Viking invasions began.
Successive defeats by the Norse forced the Picts and Gaels to cease their hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century. The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin and his descendants, known to modern historians as the House of Alpin, fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. England, under Edward I, would take advantage of the succession in Scotland to launch a series of conquests into Scotland. The resulting Wars of Scottish Independence were fought in the late 13th and early 14th centuries as Scotland passed back, Scotlands ultimate victory in the Wars of Independence under David II confirmed Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. When David II died without issue, his nephew Robert II established the House of Stewart, ruling until 1714, Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch. Since 1714, the succession of the British monarchs of the houses of Hanover and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha has been due to their descent from James VI, during the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial and industrial powerhouses of Europe.
Later, its decline following the Second World War was particularly acute. In recent decades Scotland has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgent financial services sector and the proceeds of North Sea oil and gas. Since the 1950s, nationalism has become a political topic, with serious debates on Scottish independence. People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britains recorded history, glaciers scoured their way across most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC. Mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, and archaeologists have dated an encampment near Biggar to around 8500 BC, numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of highly mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers. The oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the structure of wooden posts found at South Queensferry near the Firth of Forth, dating from the Mesolithic period
It was adopted by the Royalists themselves. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles Is cavalry, is considered to be an archetypal Cavalier. Cavalier derives from the same Latin root as the French word chevalier, Cavalier is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the English Civil War. Charles, in the Answer to the Petition 13 June 1642 speaks of Cavaliers as a word by what mistake soever it seemes much in disfavour, Cavalier was not understood at the time as primarily a term describing a style of dress, but a whole political and social attitude. Most Parliamentarian generals wore their hair at much the length as their Royalist counterparts. The best patrons in the nobility of Charles Is court painter Sir Anthony van Dyck, probably the most famous image identified as of a cavalier, Frans Hals Laughing Cavalier, shows a gentleman from the strongly Calvinist Dutch town of Haarlem, and is dated 1624. These derogatory terms showed what the typical Parliamentarian thought of the Royalist side – capricious men who cared more for vanity than the nation at large.
Although they did not share the same outlook on how to worship God as the English Independents of the New Model Army, if I forget Thee, do not forget me. However, the word was coined by the Roundheads as a propaganda image of a licentious, hard drinking and frivolous man. It is this image which has survived and many Royalists, for example Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, fitted this description to a tee. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece, in which he so much excelled and this sense has developed into the modern English use of cavalier to describe a recklessly nonchalant attitude, although still with a suggestion of stylishness. Likewise during Exclusion Bill crisis the term Roundhead was replaced with Whig, an example of the Cavalier style can be seen in the painting Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles by Anthony van Dyck. The mascot of Cavalier has been commonly used in the sports world. Most prominently it has been that of the professional Cleveland Cavaliers in the NBA since 1970 and it has been adopted by smaller organizations such as Johnson County Community College, Kankakee Community College, St.
Gregorys University, and the University of Virginias College at Wise. Cavaliers have been represented as a class and subclass of role-playing character since 1983 in Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, Cavalier Generals, King Charles I and His Commanders in the English Civil War, 1642–46. Going to the Wars, The Experience of the British Civil Wars 1638-1651, Hugh, ed. Goring, George Goring, Lord. Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of, the history of the rebellion and civil wars in England. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution 1688, the Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England and Ireland, 1639-1660
Alexander Seton, 1st Viscount of Kingston
Sir Alexander Seton, 1st Viscount of Kingston, a Cavalier, was the first dignity Charles II conferred as King. Alexander was the son of George Seton, 3rd Earl of Winton by Anne, daughter to Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll. At the early age of twelve, he received King Charles I on a visit to Seton Palace, delivering himself of a Latin oration at the iron gates of the palace in the presence of His Majesty. There and the King conferred upon him the honour of knighthood, remarking as he did so, Sir Alexander, see that this does not spoil your school, after extensive travels in foreign lands Sir Alexander came home in 1640. But, refusing to sign the Covenant in 1643, he was excommunicated in Tranent Church, upon returning he was entrusted with important State business by King Charles II, who created him Viscount of Kingston on 14 February 1651 with limitation to the heirs male of his body. His title was taken from a village of that name in Dirleton parish, on the day of his creation, Sir Alexander was, with a gallant little garrison, defending Tantallon Castle against Oliver Cromwell who had laid siege to it.
Following twelve days and a battering with grate canon the defenders were compelled to surrender, in 1668 Lord Kingston was appointed, by the King, commander of the Haddingtonshire Militia. Following her death he married fourthly, Lady Margaret Douglas, daughter of Archibald Douglas and he had no issue by his last two wives. Lord Kingston was buried on 25 October 1691, within the church of Whittingehame. The Scots Peerage by Sir James Balfour Paul, under Seton, Viscount of Kingston, the Seven Ages of an East Lothian Parish - Whittingehame, by the Reverend Marshall. Lang, T. D. Edinburgh,1929, pps, 142-146
Charles Maitland, 3rd Earl of Lauderdale
Charles Maitland, 3rd Earl of Lauderdale, was the second son of John Maitland, 1st Earl of Lauderdale. Shortly after the Restoration of King Charles II, Charles Maitland was created sole Captain-General of The Mint for life and he was elected one of the Commissioners for Edinburghshire and Lord of the Articles in the parliament of 1669. On the 1 June 1670 he was admitted an Ordinary Lord, by charter of novodamus of 1676, ratified by the Scots Parliament, King Charles II granted Charles Maitland, Lord Haltoun, the office of bearing our insignia within our said realm of Scotland. Upon the fall of The Duke of Lauderdale, Lord Haltouns enemies began to attack him and he was, in July 1681, accused before parliament of perjury, the prosecution only halted by the adjournment of parliament. The case was tried in the Court of Session, which, on the 20 March 1683, fined Sir John Falconer and him £72,000 sterling, a vast sum for the time. The King mitigated the penalty to £20,000 sterling, ordaining £16,000 to be paid to the Lord Chancellor, Lord Haltoun succeeded his brother as Earl of Lauderdale in 1683, and was readmitted a Privy Counsellor on the 11 March 1686.
Charles Maitland married, on 18 November 1652, younger daughter of Richard Lauder of Haltoun, Sheriff Principal for Edinburgh, &c. As provided in the charter, when Sir John inherited the Earldom of Lauderdale on the death of his elder brother Richard, the third Earl of Lauderdale left six sons and two daughters, his eldest son and heir being Richard Maitland, 4th Earl of Lauderdale. Of his daughters, Isobel married John, 8th Lord Elphinstone, the Great Seal of Scotland, facsimile of the first printed version, Edinburgh,1984. An Historical Account of the Senators of the College of Justice of Scotland, re-edited & continued, Edinburgh,1849, pps, 396–398. John and John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, the Grange of St. Giles, Edinburgh,1898. Balfour Paul, Sir James, Lord Lyon King of Arms, The Scots Peerage, Edinburgh,1905 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Lord President of the Court of Session
The Lord President of the Court of Session is the most senior judge in Scotland, the head of the judiciary, and the presiding judge of the College of Justice and the Court of Session. The Lord President is the Lord Justice General of Scotland and the head of the High Court of Justiciary, the Lord President has authority over any court established under Scots law, except for the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The office of Lord Justice General is derived from the justiciars who were appointed from at least the twelfth century, from around 1567 onwards it was held heritably by the Earl of Argyll until the heritability was resigned to the Crown in 1607. The current Lord President of the Court of Session is Lord Carloway, in Scotland the Official Oath is taken before the Lord President of the Court of Session. The Lord President is paid according to Salary Group 1.1 of the Judicial Salaries Scale, Captain of Argyll, in the reign of Ethodius Comes Dunetus, in the reign of King William the Lion.
1372, Sir William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas, Justiciary South of the Forth, Court of Session List of Senators of the College of Justice List of Leading Scottish Legal Cases
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein