1694 Kaiser

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1694 Kaiser
Discovery [1]
Discovered by H. van Gent
Discovery site Johannesburg Obs.
(Leiden Southern Station)
Discovery date 29 September 1934
MPC designation (1694) Kaiser
Named after
Frederik Kaiser (astronomer)[2]
1934 SB · 1960 SD
main-belt · (inner)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 82.60 yr (30,168 days)
Aphelion 3.0137 AU
Perihelion 1.7759 AU
2.3948 AU
Eccentricity 0.2584
3.71 yr (1,354 days)
0° 15m 57.24s / day
Inclination 11.103°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 13.84±1.27 km[4]
15.678±0.175 km[5][6]
28.42 km (calculated)[3]
9 h[a]
13.02±0.01 h[7]
13.23±0.02 h[8]
0.057 (assumed)[3]
B–V = 0.735[1]
U–B = 0.415[1]
Tholen = GC [1] · C[3]

1694 Kaiser, provisional designation 1934 SB, is a rare-type carbonaceous asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 16 kilometers in diameter.

It was discovered on 29 September 1934, by Dutch astronomer Hendrik van Gent at Leiden Southern Station, annex to the Johannesburg Observatory in South Africa.[9] It is named for Dutch astronomer Frederik Kaiser.[2]


Kaiser orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–3.0 AU once every 3 years and 9 months (1,354 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.26 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.of 1.8–3.0 AU once every 3.71 years (1,354 days). Its eccentric orbit of 0.26 is inclined by 11 degrees towards the plane of the ecliptic.[1] Kaiser's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation, as no precoveries were taken, and no prior identifications were made.[9]

Physical parameters[edit]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Kaiser measures 13.84 and 15.68 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo of 0.241 and 0.166, respectively.[4][5][6] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 28.42 kilometers, with an absolute magnitude of 11.46[3]

Spectral type[edit]

On the Tholen taxonomy, the carbonaceous C-type asteroid is classified as a rare GC-type, an intermediate to the G-type asteroids.[1]

Rotation period[edit]

Two rotational lightcurves for Kaiser were obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Brian D. Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory in Colorado (see video in § External links). The lightcurves from January 2006 and November 2012, gave a rotation period of 13.02 and 13.23 hours and a variation in brightness of 0.32 and 0.13 magnitude, respectively (U=3/2+).[7][8]


This asteroid was named in honor of Dutch astronomer Frederik Kaiser (1808–1872), the director of the Leiden Observatory from 1837–1872. He founded the new Leiden Observatory and stimulated Dutch astronomical research. Frederick Kaiser is also honored by the lunar and Martian craters Kaiser.[2] Originally, the asteroid was erroneously named Kapteyn (MPC 2822), and only later it was noticed that the Duch astronomer Jacobus Kapteyn was already honored by the minor planet 818 Kapteynia. The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 2883).[10]


  1. ^ CALL (2011web) gives a rotation period of 9 hours. Summary figures at LCDB Data for (1694) Kaiser


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1694 Kaiser (1934 SB)" (2017-05-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1694) Kaiser. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1694) Kaiser". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2013). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2012 September - 2013 January". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 40 (2): 71–80. Bibcode:2013MPBu...40...71W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (September 2006). "Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - late 2005 and early 2006". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 33 (3): 58–62. Bibcode:2006MPBu...33...58W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b "1694 Kaiser (1934 SB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  10. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 December 2016. 

External links[edit]