1696 Nurmela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
1696 Nurmela
Discovery [1]
Discovered by Y. Väisälä
Discovery site Turku Obs.
Discovery date 18 March 1939
MPC designation (1696) Nurmela
Named after
Tauno Nurmela
(University of Turku)[2]
1939 FF · 1939 GL
1949 DK · 1951 YK
main-belt[1][3] · inner
Baptistina[4][5] · Flora[6]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 78.30 yr (28,598 d)
Aphelion 2.4842 AU
Perihelion 2.0391 AU
2.2616 AU
Eccentricity 0.0984
3.40 yr (1,242 d)
0° 17m 23.28s / day
Inclination 6.0374°
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
6.06±1.18 km[7]
7.69±2.07 km[8]
9.232±0.181 km[9]
9.911±0.056 km[10]
10.31±0.44 km[11]
14.64 km (calculated)[4]
3.1587±0.0001 h[12]
3.1587±0.0001 h[13]
3.159±0.001 h[14][a]
0.057 (assumed)[4]
C (assumed)[4]

1696 Nurmela, provisional designation 1939 FF, is a Baptistina asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 18 March 1939, by Finnish astronomer Yrjö Väisälä at Turku Observatory in Southwest Finland, and named after Finnish academician Tauno Nurmela.[2][1] The possibly elongated asteroid has a rotation period of 3.15 hours.[4]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Nurmela is the second-largest member of the small Baptistina family (403), a large inner-belt family, named after 298 Baptistina, its largest member and namesake.[4][5] When applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements, it is also a member of the Flora family (402),[6] a giant asteroid family and the largest family of stony asteroids in the main-belt.[15]:23

It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 5 months (1,242 days; semi-major axis of 2.26 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.10 and an inclination of 6° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Turku.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Nurmela is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid,[4] while its albedo and membership to the Baptistina family is indicative for an X-type.[15]:23

Rotation period[edit]

In March and April 2007, two rotational lightcurves of Nurmela was obtained from photometric observations by Adrián Galád and Robert Stephens. They gave an identical rotation period of 3.1587 hours with a brightness variation of 0.33 and 0.42 magnitude, respectively (U=3/3).[13][12] In April 2017, another observation by Stephens gave a concurring period of 3.159 hours (U=3) with an amplitude of 0.58 magnitude, indicative for an elongated shape.[14][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Nurmela measures between 6.06 and 10.31 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.116 and 0.28.[7][8][9][10][11]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 14.64 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.9.[4]


This minor planet was named in honor of Finnish academician Tauno Kalervo Nurmela (1907–1985), some time professor of Romanic philology and later chancellor of University of Turku.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 April 1980 (M.P.C. 5281).[16]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (1696) Nurmela, by Stephens at the CS3 (U81) in April 2017, with rotation period 3.159±0.001 hours and a brightness amplitude of 0.58±0.02 mag. Quality code of 3. Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d "1696 Nurmela (1939 FF)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1696) Nurmela. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1696 Nurmela (1939 FF)" (2017-06-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (1696) Nurmela". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b Reddy, V.; Sanchez, J. A.; Bottke, W. F.; Gaffey, M. J.; Le Corre, L.; Masiero, J.; Mainzer, A. K. (March 2013). "Composition of (1696) Nurmela: The Second Largest Member of Baptistina Asteroid Family". 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Bibcode:2013LPI....44.1093R. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Online catalog
  12. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D.; Malcolm, Glenn (September 2007). "Lightcurve Analysis of 1489 Attila and 1696 Nurmela". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (3): 78. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34...78S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  13. ^ a b Galad, Adrian; Kornos, Leonard (June 2008). "A Sample of Lightcurves from Modra". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (2): 78–81. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...78G. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  14. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (October 2017). "Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2017 April - June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 44 (4): 321–323. Bibcode:2017MPBu...44..321S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  15. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  16. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 December 2016.

External links[edit]