The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita, or Anno urbis conditæ abbreviated as AUC in either case, is a convention, used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome. Ab urbe condita means "from the founding of the City," while anno urbis conditæ means "in the year since the City's founding." Therefore, the traditional year of the foundation of Rome, 753 BC, would be written AUC 1, while AD 1 would be AUC 754. The foundation of the Empire in 27 BC would be AUC 727. Usage of the term was more common during the Renaissance, when editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the convention was used in antiquity. In reality, the dominant method of identifying years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year. In late antiquity, regnal years were in use, as was the Diocletian era in Roman Egypt after AD 293, in the Byzantine Empire after AD 537, following a decree by Justinian; the traditional date for the founding of Rome, 21 April 753 BC, is due to Marcus Terentius Varro.
Varro may have used the consular list and called the year of the first consuls "ab urbe condita 245," accepting the 244-year interval from Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the kings after the foundation of Rome. The correctness of this calculation has not been confirmed. From the time of Claudius onward, this calculation superseded other contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honor of the anniversary of the city, in AD 48, the eight hundredth year from the founding of the city. Hadrian and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in AD 121, in AD 147 and AD 148, respectively. In AD 248, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's alleged tenth sæculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. A coin by a contender for the imperial throne, explicitly states "ear one thousand and first", an indication that the citizens of the empire had a sense of the beginning of a new era, a Sæculum Novum.
The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in AD 525, as a result of his work on calculating the date of Easter. Dionysius did not use the AUC convention, but instead based his calculations on the Diocletian era; this convention had been in use since AD 293, the year of the tetrarchy, as it became impractical to use regnal years of the current emperor. In his Easter table, the year AD 532 was equated with the 248th regnal year of Diocletian; the table counted the years starting from the presumed birth of Christ, rather than the accession of the emperor Diocletian on 20 November AD 284, or as stated by Dionysius: "sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare". Blackburn and Holford-Strevens review interpretations of Dionysius which place the Incarnation in 2 BC, 1 BC, or AD 1, it has been calculated that the year AD 1 corresponds to AUC 754, based on the epoch of Varro. Thus, AUC 1 = 753 BC AUC 753 = 1 BC AUC 754 = AD 1 AUC 1000 = AD 247 AUC 1229 = AD 476 AUC 2206 = AD 1453 AUC 2753 = AD 2000 AUC 2772 = AD 2019 List of Latin phrases
The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century. During the 16th century and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes. Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with Asia; this era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century. In Europe, the Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, Luca Pacioli published the first work on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In England, the Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world. China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period. Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, met with strong resistance, Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova; these events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Polybius' "The Histories" translated into Italian, English and French. Mississippian culture disappears. Medallion rug, variant Star Ushak style, Anatolia, is made, it is now kept at The Saint Louis Art Museum. 1500: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain was born. 1500: Guru Nanak the beginning and spreading of the 5th largest religion in the world Sikhism. 1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas. 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. 1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the Venetians at the Second Battle of Lepanto.
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue David. 1501: Safavid dynasty reunified Iran and ruled over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 1502: First reported African slaves in The New World 1503: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan 1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. 1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa and completes it three years later. 1503: Nostradamus was born on either December 14, or December 21. 1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain. 1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castille became the Queen. 1505: Zhengde Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty. 1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine's Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation. 1505: King Sultan Trenggono built the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia's of a homelessness of a.
Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of unity. 1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the Mona Lisa. 1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo's state religion. 1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal. 1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain. 1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate. 1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf. 1508–1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling. 1509: The Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. 1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade.
After receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The Javanese fleet is destroyed in Malacca.. 1509–10: The'great plague' in various parts of Tudor England. 1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia. 1512: Copernicus writes Commentar
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, is the same length as the Gregorian year. Based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is shorter than 30 days, the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles; the months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for "minus one night". To stop the Saka from lagging behind the Gregorian calendar – as happens with the Islamic calendar, an extra month, known as an intercalary month, is added after the 11th month, or after the 12th month; the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. An intercalary month is added whenever necessary to prevent the final day of the 7th month, known as Tilem Kapitu, from falling in the Gregorian month of December.
The names the twelve months are taken from a mixture of Old Balinese and Sanskrit words for 1 to 12, are as follows: Kasa Karo Katiga Kapat Kalima Kanem Kapitu Kawalu Kasanga Kadasa Jyestha SadhaEach month begins the day after a new moon and has 15 days of waxing moon until the full moon 15 days of waning, ending on the new moon. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15; the first day of the year is the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, that the years of the Saka era are counted from that date; the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year; the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633; the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, is a night dedicated to the god Shiva. Devotees stay up all meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year celebrated at Purnama. Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekalia and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182–185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Haer, Debbie Guthrie. ISBN 981 3018 496 Hobart, Angela. ISBN 0 631 17687 X Ricklefs, M. C.
Genroku was a Japanese era name after Jōkyō and before Hōei. This period spanned the years from ninth month of 1688 through third month of 1704; the reigning emperor was Higashiyama-tennō. The years of Genroku are considered to be the Golden Age of the Edo period; the previous hundred years of peace and seclusion in Japan had created relative economic stability. The arts and architecture flourished. There were unanticipated consequences when the shogunate debased the quality of coins as a strategy for financing the appearance of continuing Genroku affluence; this strategic miscalculation caused abrupt inflation. In an effort to solve the ensuing crisis, the bakufu introduced what were called the Kyōhō Reforms. Genroku gannen; the previous era ended and the new one commenced in Jōkyō 5, on the 30th day of the 9th month. A sense of optimism is suggested in the era name choice of Genroku. 1688: Ihara Saikaku publishes Japan's Eternal Treasury. 1688: Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu assumes the office of Soba Yōnin.
1688: The Tokugawa shogunate revised the code of conduct for funerals, which incorporated a code of conduct for mourning as well. 1689: Foreign settlements in Nagasaki become possible. September 16, 1689: German physician Engelbert Kaempfer arrives at Dejima. 1690: The Abandoned Child Ban was proclaimed. 1692: Building of temples in Edo banned. 1693: Arai Hakuseki becomes tutor to the daimyō of Kōfu-han, the future shōgun Tokugawa Ienobu. 1693: The code of conduct for funerals is revised again. 1695: Land survey performed of territory under the direct control of the bakufu in Kantō. 1695: Minting begun of Genroku coinage. The shogunate placed the Japanese character gen on the obverse of copper coins, the same character used today in China for the yuan. There is no connection between those uses, however. 1695: First kennel is established for stray dogs in Edo. In this context, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi comes to be nicknamed "the Dog Shogun" 1697: The fourth official map of Japan was made in this year, but it was considered to be inferior to the previous one—which had been ordered in Shōhō 1 and completed in Kan'ei 16.
This Genroku map was corrected in Kyōhō 4 by the mathematician Tatebe Katahiro, using high mountain peaks as points of reference, was drawn to a scale of 1:21,600. 1697: Great fire in Edo. Five-storied Pagoda 1698: Another great fire in Edo. A new hall is constructed inside the enclosure of the Edo temple of Kan'ei-ji. 1700: Exchange rate of silver coins established. 1703: Akō Domain incident involving the 47 rōnin. 1703: Ōishi Yoshio commits seppuku. 1703: First performance of Chikamatsu Monzaemon's play The Love Suicides at Sonezaki. December 31, 1703: The Great Genroku earthquake shook Edo and parts of the shogun's castle collapsed; the following day, a vast fire spread throughout the city. Parts of Honshū's coast were battered by tsunami, 200,000 people were either killed or injured. Chikamatsu Monzaemon—jōruri playwright Ichikawa Danjūrō I, Sakata Tōjūrō I, Yoshizawa Ayame I—kabuki actors Ihara Saikaku—novelist Arai Hakuseki—Confucian scholar and shogunal advisor The Forty-seven rōnin Ogata Kōrin and Ogata Kenzan—Rinpa school artists Torii Kiyonobu, Hishikawa Moronobu, Miyagawa Chōshun—ukiyo-e artists Matsuo Bashō- Haiku poet Hammer, Joshua..
Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743264655. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-203-09985-8. Japanese Culture: Its Development And Characteristics. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33039-4 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Traganeou, Jilly.. The Metaphorical Road of the Tōkaid: Traveling and Representation in Edo and Meiji Japan. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780415310918.
The Byzantine calendar called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World", was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire from 988 to 1453, of Kievan Rus' and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. Since "Byzantine" is a historiographical term, the original name uses the noun "Roman" as it was how the Eastern Roman Empire continued calling itself; the calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi epoch derived from the Septuagint version of the Bible. It placed the date of creation at 5509 years before the Incarnation, was characterized by a certain tendency, a tradition among Jews and early Christians to number the years from the calculated foundation of the world, its Year One, marking the supposed date of creation, was September 1, 5509 BC, to August 31, 5508 BC. It is not known when; the first appearance of the term is in the treatise of a certain "monk and priest", who mentions all the main variants of the "World Era" in his work.
Georgios argues that the main advantage of the World era is the common starting point of the astronomical lunar and solar cycles, of the cycle of indictions, the usual dating system in Byzantium since the 6th century. He already regards it as the most convenient for the Easter computus. Complex calculations of the 19-year lunar and 28-year solar cycles within this world era allowed scholars to discover the cosmic significance of certain historical dates, such as the birth or the crucifixion of Jesus; this date underwent minor revisions before being finalized in the mid-7th century, although its precursors were developed c. AD 412. By the second half of the 7th century, the Creation Era was known in Western Europe, at least in Great Britain. By the late 10th century around AD 988, when the era appears in use on official government records, a unified system was recognized across the Eastern Roman world; the era was calculated as starting on September 1, Jesus was thought to have been born in the year 5509 since the creation of the world.
Historical time was thus calculated from the creation, not from Christ's birth, as in the west after the Anno Domini system was adopted between 6th and 9th centuries. The Eastern Church avoided the use of the Anno Domini system of Dionysius Exiguus, since the date of Christ's birth was debated in Constantinople as late as the 14th century. Otherwise the Byzantine calendar was identical to the Julian Calendar except that: the names of the months were transcribed from Latin into Greek; the leap day of the Byzantine calendar was obtained in an identical manner to the bissextile day of the original Roman version of the Julian calendar, by doubling the sixth day before the calends of March, i.e. by doubling 24 February. The Byzantine World Era was replaced in the Orthodox Church by the Christian Era, utilized by Patriarch Theophanes I Karykes in 1597, afterwards by Patriarch Cyril Lucaris in 1626, formally established by the Church in 1728. Meanwhile, as Russia received Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, she inherited the Orthodox Calendar based on the Byzantine Era.
After the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the era continued to be used by Russia, which witnessed millennialist movements in Moscow in AD 1492. It was only in AD 1700 that the Byzantine World Era in Russia was changed to the Julian Calendar by Peter the Great, it still forms the basis of traditional Orthodox calendars up to today. September AD 2000 began the year 7509 AM; the earliest extant Christian writings on the age of the world according to the Biblical chronology are by Theophilus, the sixth bishop of Antioch from the Apostles, in his apologetic work To Autolycus, by Julius Africanus in his Five Books of Chronology. Both of these early Christian writers, following the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, determined the age of the world to have been about 5,530 years at the birth of Christ. Ben Zion Wacholder points out that the writings of the Church Fathers on this subject are of vital significance, in that through the Christian chronographers a window to the earlier Hellenistic biblical chronographers is preserved: An immense intellectual effort was expended during the Hellenistic period by both Jews and pagans to date creation, the flood, building of the Temple...
In the course of their studies, men such as Tatian of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus of Rome