1703 in science
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- Charles Plumier's Nova plantarum Americanarum genera begins publication in Paris. This includes descriptions of Fuchsia, discovered by him on Hispaniola, and naming of the genus Magnolia, applied to species from Martinique.
- Georg Ernst Stahl, professor of medicine and chemistry at the University of Halle, proposes phlogiston theory in the way it comes to be generally understood.
- Gottfried Leibniz first publishes a description of binary numbers in the West.
- Leonty Magnitsky's Arithmetic (Арифметика) is published, the first scientific book in the Russian language.
- November 24 – December 2 – The Great Storm of 1703, an Atlantic hurricane, ravages southern England and the English Channel, killing nearly 8000, mostly at sea.
- November 30 – Isaac Newton is elected president of the Royal Society in London, a position he will hold until his death in 1727.
- January 8 – André Levret, French obstetrician (died 1780)
- January 15 – Johann Ernst Hebenstreit, German physician and naturalist (died 1757)
- June 21 – Joseph Lieutaud, French physician (died 1780)
- August 23 – Robert James, English physician (died 1776)
- September 16 – Guillaume-François Rouelle, French chemist and apothecary (died 1770)
- October 28 – Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician (died 1768)
- November 25 – Jean-François Séguier, French astronomer and botanist (died 1784)
- December 2 – Ferdinand Konščak, Croatian explorer (died 1759)
- December 9 – Chester Moore Hall, English scientific instrument maker (died 1771)
- undated – Aleksei Chirikov, Russian explorer (died 1748)
- March 3 – Robert Hooke, English scientist (born 1635)
- March 20 (probable) – Johann von Löwenstern-Kunckel, German chemist (born 1630?)
- September 22 – Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician and scientist (born 1622)
- October 28 – John Wallis, English mathematician (born 1616)
- The Encyclopædia Britannica: a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volume XI, Franciscans to Gibbons 11th ed. New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company (1910). p. 272. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- Mason, Stephen F. (1962). "Chapter 26". A History of the Sciences (revised ed.). New York: Collier Books.
- Leibniz G. "Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire". Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences. Repr. in Gerhardt, C., ed. (1879), Die Mathematische Schriften, Berlin, 7:223. English translation as "Explanation of Binary Arithmetic" at Leibniz Translations, retrieved on 2013-12-24.