1707 in science
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- May 23 – Volcanic eruption in the Santorini caldera begins.
- December 16 – Beginning of the last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan.
- Publication of Arithmetica universalis, the collected works of Isaac Newton on algebra.
- Abraham de Moivre derives de Moivre's formula.
- John Floyer, in The Physician's Pulse Watch, introduces counting of pulse rate during one minute.
- Giovanni Maria Lancisi publishes De Subitaneis Mortibus (On Sudden Death), an early work in cardiology.
- Georg Ernst Stahl publishes Theoria medica vera: physiologiam & pathologiam.
- January 11 – Vincenzo Riccati, Italian mathematician (died 1775)
- April 10 – John Pringle, Scottish physician (died 1782)
- April 15 – Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician (died 1783)
- May 23 – Carl Linnaeus, Swedish naturalist (died 1778)
- June 22 (bapt.) – Elizabeth Blackwell, Scottish-born botanical illustrator (died 1758)
- September 7 – Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, French naturalist (died 1788)
- December 22 – Johann Amman (died 1741), Swiss-Russian botanist.
- date unknown – Benjamin Robins, English scientist and engineer (died 1751)