The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
The Republic of China calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of China. It is used to number the years for official purposes only in the Taiwan area after 1949, it was used in the Chinese mainland from 1912 until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Following the Chinese imperial tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, official ROC documents use the Republic system of numbering years in which the first year was 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar; the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective 1 January 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional Chinese calendar. The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by foreign colonial powers. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, but the Kuomintang or Nationalist government controlled southern China and used the Gregorian calendar.
After the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China on 10 October 1928, the Gregorian calendar was adopted, effective 1 January 1929. The People's Republic of China has continued to use the Gregorian calendar since 1949. Despite the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, the numbering of the years was still an issue; the Chinese imperial tradition was to use the emperor's era year of reign. One alternative to this approach was to use the reign of the half-historical, half-legendary Yellow Emperor in the third millennium BC to number the years. In the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate such a system of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperor's regnal name; when Sun Yat-sen became the provisional president of the Republic of China, he sent telegrams to leaders of all provinces and announced the 13th day of 11th Month of the 4609th year of the Yellow Emperor's reign to be the first year of the Republic of China. The original intention of the Minguo calendar was to follow the imperial practice of naming the years according to the number of years the Emperor had reigned, a universally recognizable event in China.
Following the establishment of the Republic, hence the lack of an Emperor, it was decided to use the year of the establishment of the current regime. This reduced the issue of frequent change in the calendar, as no Emperor ruled more than 61 years in Chinese history — the longest being the Kangxi Emperor, who ruled from 1662–1722; as Chinese era names are traditionally two characters long, 民國 is employed as an abbreviation of 中華民國. The first year, 1912, is called 民國元年 and 2010, the "99th year of the Republic" is 民國九十九年, 民國99年, or 99. Based on Chinese National Standard CNS 7648: Data Elements and Interchange Formats—Information Interchange—Representation of Dates and Times, year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era. For example, 3 May 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or ROC 93-05-03; the ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the numbering used by the Juche calendar of North Korea, because its founder, Kim Il-sung, was born in 1912. The years in Japan's Taishō period coincide with those of the ROC era.
In addition to the ROC's Minguo calendar, Taiwanese continue to use the lunar Chinese calendar for certain functions such as the dates of many holidays, the calculation of people's ages, religious functions. The use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents. Misinterpretation is more in the cases when the prefix is omitted. There have been legislative proposals by pro-Taiwan Independence political parties, such as the Democratic Progressive Party to abolish the Republican calendar in favor of the Gregorian calendar. To convert any Gregorian calendar year between 1912 and the current year to Minguo calendar, 1912 needs to be subtracted from the year in question 1 added. East Asian age reckoning Public holidays in Taiwan
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
The Dog is eleventh of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Dog is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 戌; the character 狗 refers to the actual animal while 戌 refers to the zodiac animal. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Dog", while bearing the following elemental sign: In the sexagenary cycle, 2018, is the Celestial stem/Earthly Branch year indicated by the characters 戊戌. For the 2018 Year of the Dog, many countries and regions issued lunar new year stamps; these included countries where the holiday is traditionally observed as well as countries in the Americas, Africa and Oceania. The USC U. S.-China Institute created a web collection of more than one hundred of these stamps. Dog Dog in Chinese mythology Animal worship Horoscope 2018: Chinese New Year – Predictions in the Year of the Dog Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2006: What the Year of the Dog Holds for You.
P. 367. ISBN 9780007197736
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows: The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Arabic numerals; the original pattern for Roman numerals used the symbols I, V, X as simple tally marks. Each marker for 1 added a unit value up to 5, was added to to make the numbers from 6 to 9: I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X; the numerals for 4 and 9 proved problematic, are replaced with IV and IX. This feature of Roman numerals is called subtractive notation; the numbers from 1 to 10 are expressed in Roman numerals as follows: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
The system being decimal and hundreds follow the same underlying pattern. This is the key to understanding Roman numerals: Thus 10 to 100: X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C. Note that 40 and 90 follow the same subtractive pattern as 4 and 9, avoiding the confusing XXXX. 100 to 1000: C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M. Again - 400 and 900 follow the standard subtractive pattern, avoiding CCCC. In the absence of standard symbols for 5,000 and 10,000 the pattern breaks down at this point - in modern usage M is repeated up to three times; the Romans had several ways to indicate larger numbers, but for practical purposes Roman Numerals for numbers larger than 3,999 are if used nowadays, this suffices. M, MM, MMM. Many numbers include hundreds and tens; the Roman numeral system being decimal, each power of ten is added in descending sequence from left to right, as with Arabic numerals. For example: 39 = "Thirty nine" = XXXIX. 246 = "Two hundred and forty six" = CCXLVI. 421 = "Four hundred and twenty one" = CDXXI.
As each power of ten has its own notation there is no need for place keeping zeros, so "missing places" are ignored, as in Latin speech, thus: 160 = "One hundred and sixty" = CLX 207 = "Two hundred and seven" = CCVII 1066 = "A thousand and sixty six" = MLXVI. Roman numerals for large numbers are nowadays seen in the form of year numbers, as in these examples: 1776 = MDCCLXXVI. 1954 = MCMLIV 1990 = MCMXC. 2014 = MMXIV (the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The current year is MMXIX. The "standard" forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than an unchanging and universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied and remained inconsistent in medieval times. There is still no official "binding" standard, which makes the elaborate "rules" used in some sources to distinguish between "correct" and "incorrect" forms problematic. "Classical" inscriptions not infrequently use IIII for "4" instead of IV. Other "non-subtractive" forms, such as VIIII for IX, are sometimes seen, although they are less common.
On the numbered gates to the colosseum, for instance, IV is systematically avoided in favour of IIII, but other "subtractives" apply, so that gate 44 is labelled XLIIII. Isaac Asimov speculates that the use of "IV", as the initial letters of "IVPITER" may have been felt to have been impious in this context. Clock faces that use Roman numerals show IIII for four o'clock but IX for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to early clocks such as the Wells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century. However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, uses a "normal" IV. XIIX or IIXX are sometimes used for "18" instead of XVIII; the Latin word for "eighteen" is rendered as the equivalent of "two less than twenty" which may be the source of this usage. The standard forms for 98 and 99 are XCVIII and XCIX, as described in the "decimal pattern" section above, but these numbers are rendered as IIC and IC originally from the Latin duodecentum and undecentum.
Sometimes V and L are not used, with instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX. Most non-standard numerals other than those described above - such as VXL for 45, instead of the standard XLV are modern and may be due to error rather than being genuine variant usage. In the early years of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance, 1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, while on the north entrance to the Saint Louis Art Museum, 1903 is inscribed as MDCDIII rather than MCMIII. Although Roman numerals came to be written with letters
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, is the same length as the Gregorian year. Based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is shorter than 30 days, the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles; the months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for "minus one night". To stop the Saka from lagging behind the Gregorian calendar – as happens with the Islamic calendar, an extra month, known as an intercalary month, is added after the 11th month, or after the 12th month; the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. An intercalary month is added whenever necessary to prevent the final day of the 7th month, known as Tilem Kapitu, from falling in the Gregorian month of December.
The names the twelve months are taken from a mixture of Old Balinese and Sanskrit words for 1 to 12, are as follows: Kasa Karo Katiga Kapat Kalima Kanem Kapitu Kawalu Kasanga Kadasa Jyestha SadhaEach month begins the day after a new moon and has 15 days of waxing moon until the full moon 15 days of waning, ending on the new moon. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15; the first day of the year is the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, that the years of the Saka era are counted from that date; the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year; the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633; the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, is a night dedicated to the god Shiva. Devotees stay up all meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year celebrated at Purnama. Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekalia and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182–185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Haer, Debbie Guthrie. ISBN 981 3018 496 Hobart, Angela. ISBN 0 631 17687 X Ricklefs, M. C.
The 1st century was the century AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is written as the 1st century AD or 1st century CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC which preceded it; the 1st century is considered part of epoch, or historical period. During this period, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continued expanding, most notably conquering Britain under the emperor Claudius; the reforms introduced by Augustus during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous century's civil wars. In the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded by Augustus, came to an end with the suicide of Nero in AD 68. There followed the famous Year of Four Emperors, a brief period of civil war and instability, brought to an end by Vespasian, ninth Roman emperor, founder of the Flavian dynasty; the Roman Empire experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century is remembered as part of the Empire's golden age.
The 1st century saw the appearance of Christianity. China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in AD 23; the capital was moved from Chang'an to Luoyang. Western Europe: Celtic, Germanic and Finnic tribal chiefdom and the Roman Empire Eastern Europe: Roman Empire, Sarmatian and Balt tribal chiefdoms North Africa: Roman Empire, Mauri and Gaetulian tribal chiefdoms West Africa: Gur, Kwa and Mande tribal chiefdoms Central Africa: Bantu tribes, collapsing Nok culture Nok civilization East Africa: Kingdom of Kush, Kingdom of Blemmyes, Kingdom of Aksum Southern Africa: Bantu tribes, Khoisan. Western Asia: Roman and Parthian Empires and Arabian Kingdoms, smaller tribes. Central Asia: Kushan Empire, Sarmatian and other Iranian tribal chiefdoms South Asia: Kushan Empire, Western Satraps, Satavahana Empire, Dravidian Kingdoms, Kingdom of Kalinga, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Zhangzhung. Southeast Asia: Mandala of city-states, Kingdom of Funan East Asia: Han Dynasty, Yamatai and Xianbei tribal chiefdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea.
North America: Central America: Mayan and Zapotec civilizations. Caribbean: South America: Nazca, Moche civilizations, Tairona tribal chiefdoms. Early 1st century – Augustus of Primaporta, is made, it is now kept in Braccio Nuovo, Rome. Early 1st century – Gemma Augustea is made, it is now kept at Vienna. Early 1st century – House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, is built. Excavated in 1893, the year of the silver wedding anniversary of Italy's King Humbert and his wife, Margherita of Savoy, who have supported archaeological fieldwork at Pompeii. Early 1st century - Inner shrine, Mie, Mie Prefecture, is built. Yayoi period. AD 1: Lions became extinct in Western Europe. AD 2: First census of China, the census is one of the most accurate in Chinese history. AD 6: Census of Quirinius. AD 7: Prince Cunobeline of Catuvellauni defeats the Trinovantes in England and establishes his capital at Camulodunum. AD 9: Three Roman legions were ambushed and destroyed at Teutoberg Forest by Germans under the leadership of Arminius.
AD 9: Prince Cunobeline is crowned King of Catuvellauni, his Kingdom dominates Southern England. AD 9 – 23: Wang Mang temporarily overthrew the Han dynasty of China. AD 9 – 23: Xin dynasty. AD 14: Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome, dies, his adopted son and son-in-law Tiberius is his successor. AD 25: The Han dynasty is restored by Liu Xiu who proclaims himself Emperor Guangwu of Han. AD 28 – 75: Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism reaches China. Humans establish the Bunlap tribe, among others. C. AD 29: Jesus begins his ministry. C. AD 33: The Crucifixion of Jesus. C. AD 33 – 36: Conversion of Paul the Apostle. AD 40: Succession crisis erupts at King Cunobeline's court and his exiled younger son Prince Adminius flees to the court of Caligula in Rome. AD 40: Emperor Caligula plans to invade Britain, but forgets to bring an army, he instead declares war upon the sea, whipping it and taking shells as prisoners. AD 40 – 43: Revolts erupts in Vietnam by the Trung sisters. AD 42: King Cunobeline dies, his son Caratacus becomes King.
He and his brother conquer much of South-Eastern England, expanding territory into Atrebates, driving out King Verica. King Verica travels to Rome to the court of Claudius to help reclaim his throne. AD 43: Roman conquest of Britain begins. London is founded. AD 44: Death of Herod Agrippa. AD 41 – 54: Rachias, an ambassador sent from Sri Lanka to the court of Claudius. Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka first write down Buddha's teachings, creating the Pali canon; the regions of present-day Afghanistan and North India come under the control of the Kushans, a nomadic people forced out of northwest China by the Han Dynasty. Tacitus mentions the Suiones. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin establishes the pre-Angkor Cambodian Kingdom of Funan; the Goths settle in northern Poland, which they called Gothiscandza, shape the Wielbark culture. C. AD 50: Christian Council of Jerusalem. Mid-1st century – Wall niche, from garden in Pompeii, is made, it is now kept at University of Cambridge, England. Mid-1st century – Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii