1.
1710 in science
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The year 1710 in science and technology involved some significant events. The Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala is founded in Uppsala, Sweden, edmond Halley, comparing his observations with Ptolemys catalog, discovers the proper motion of some fixed stars. Alexis Littré, in his treatise Diverses observations anatomiques, is the first physician to suggest the possibility of performing a lumbar colostomy for an obstruction of the colon, stephen Hales makes the first experimental measurement of the capacity of a mammalian heart. Jakob Christof Le Blon invents a three-color printing process with red, blue, years later he adds black introducing the earliest four-color printing process. René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur produces a paper on the use of spiders to produce silk, john Arbuthnot publishes An argument for Divine Providence, taken from the constant regularity observed in the births of both sexes in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

2.
1713 in architecture
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The year 1713 in architecture involved some significant events. February 25 - Death of Frederick I of Prussia pauses work on Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin, old State House in Massachusetts, possibly designed by Robert Twelves, is completed. Church of San Benedetto, Catania in Sicily is completed, spandauische Kirche, Berlin, designed by Philipp Gerlach, is consecrated. Schelf Church at Schwerin in the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, is rebuilt, vizianagaram fort in South India is built

3.
Science
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Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science

4.
Technology
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Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it. The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts, dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose

5.
Orrery
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An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons, usually according to the heliocentric model. It may also represent the sizes of these bodies, but since accurate scaling is often not practical due to the actual large ratio differences. They are typically driven by a mechanism with a globe representing the Sun at the centre. The Antikythera mechanism, discovered in 1900 in a wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera and extensively studied, exhibited the diurnal motions of the Sun, Moon, and it has been dated between 150 and 100 BC. The Antikythera hand driven mechanism is now considered one of the first orreries and it was geocentric and used as a mechanical calculator designed to calculate astronomical positions. According to Cicero, the Roman philosopher who was writing in the first century BC, the clock itself is lost, but Dondi left a complete description of the astronomic gear trains of his clock. As late as 1650, P. Schirleus built a geocentric planetarium with the Sun as a planet, the clocks are now on display in Kassel at the Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett and in Dresden at the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, published in Nuremberg in 1543 and he observed that some Greek philosophers had proposed a heliocentric universe. This simplified the apparent epicyclic motions of the planets, making it feasible to represent the paths as simple circles. This could be modelled by the use of gears, tycho Brahes improved instruments made precise observations of the skies, and from these Johannes Kepler deduced that planets orbited the Sun in ellipses. In 1687 Isaac Newton explained the cause of motion in his theory of gravitation. Orreries take three forms, Solid Models typically the size of a coffee table, real World Orreries typically the length of a walk. Virtual World Orreries where the imagination is unlimited. Clock makers George Graham and Thomas Tompion built the first modern orrery around 1704 in England, Graham gave the first model, or its design, to the celebrated instrument maker John Rowley of London to make a copy for Prince Eugene of Savoy. Rowley was commissioned to make another copy for his patron Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery and this model was presented to Charles son John, later the 5th Earl of Cork and 5th Earl of Orrery. Independently, Christiaan Huygens published details of a heliocentric planetary machine in 1703 and he calculated the gear trains needed to represent a year of 365.242 days, and used that to produce the cycles of the principal planets. The Sun in a brass orrery provides the light in the room. The orrery depicted in the painting has rings, which give it a similar to that of an armillary sphere

6.
Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery
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Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery KT PC FRS was an English nobleman, statesman and patron of the sciences. The second son of Roger Boyle, 2nd Earl of Orrery and he was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and soon distinguished himself by his learning and abilities. Like the first earl, he was an author, soldier and he translated Plutarchs life of Lysander, and published an edition of the epistles of Phalaris, which engaged him in the famous controversy with Bentley. He was a member of the Irish Parliament and sat for Charleville between 1695 and 1699 and he was three times member for the town of Huntingdon, and on the death of his brother, Lionel, 3rd earl, in 1703, he succeeded to the title. He entered the army, and in 1709 was raised to the rank of major-general and he inherited the estate in 1714. Boyle became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1706, in 1713, under the patronage of Boyle, clockmaker George Graham created the first mechanical solar system model that could demonstrate proportional motion of the planets around the Sun. The device was named the orrery in the Earls honour, on a subsequent inquiry it was found impossible to incriminate him, and he was discharged. Boyle wrote a comedy, As you find it, printed in 1703, in 1728, he was listed as one of the subscribers to the Cyclopaedia of Ephraim Chambers. Boyle died at his house in Westminster in 1731 and was buried in Westminster Abbey and he bequeathed his personal library and collection of scientific instruments to Christ Church Library, the instruments are now on display in the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. His son John, the 5th Earl of Orrery, succeeded to the earldom of Cork on the failure of the branch of the Boyle family, as earl of Cork. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh. Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery, 1674-1731 Ph. D. dissertation, Portrait at the National Portrait Gallery, London

7.
Minimax
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Minimax is a decision rule used in decision theory, game theory, statistics and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case scenario. Its formal definition is, v i _ = max a i min a − i v i Where, − i denotes all other players except player i. a i is the action taken by player i. a − i denotes the actions taken by all other players. V i is the function of player i. Then, we determine which action player i can take in order to make sure that this smallest value is the largest possible. For example, consider the game for two players, where the first player may choose any of three moves, labelled T, M, or B, and the second player may choose either of two moves, L or R. The result of the combination of moves is expressed in a payoff table. For the sake of example, we consider only pure strategies, check each player in turn, The row player can play T, which guarantees him a payoff of at least 2. The column player can play L and secure a payoff of at least 0, if both players play their maximin strategies, the payoff vector is. In contrast, the only Nash equilibrium in game is. Its formal definition is, v i ¯ = min a − i max a i v i The definition is similar to that of the maximin value - only the order of the maximum and minimum operators is inverse. In the above example, The row player can get a value of 4 or 5, so, the column player can get a value of 1,1 or 4. In zero-sum games, the solution is the same as the Nash equilibrium. Equivalently, Player 1s strategy guarantees him a payoff of V regardless of Player 2s strategy, the name minimax arises because each player minimizes the maximum payoff possible for the other—since the game is zero-sum, he/she also minimizes his/their own maximum loss. See also example of a game without a value, the following example of a zero-sum game, where A and B make simultaneous moves, illustrates minimax solutions. Suppose each player has three choices and consider the matrix for A displayed on the right. Assume the payoff matrix for B is the matrix with the signs reversed. Then, the choice for A is A2 since the worst possible result is then having to pay 1. So a more stable strategy is needed, similarly, B can ensure an expected gain of at least 1/3, no matter what A chooses, by using a randomized strategy of choosing B1 with probability 1∕3 and B2 with probability 2∕3

8.
Jacob Bernoulli
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Jacob Bernoulli was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He was a proponent of Leibnizian calculus and had sided with Leibniz during the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy. He is known for his numerous contributions to calculus, and along with his brother Johann, was one of the founders of the calculus of variations and he also discovered the fundamental mathematical constant e. However, his most important contribution was in the field of probability, Jacob Bernoulli was born in Basel, Switzerland. Following his fathers wish, he studied theology and entered the ministry, but contrary to the desires of his parents, he also studied mathematics and astronomy. He traveled throughout Europe from 1676 to 1682, learning about the latest discoveries in mathematics and this included the work of Johannes Hudde, Robert Boyle, and Robert Hooke. During this time he produced an incorrect theory of comets. Bernoulli returned to Switzerland and began teaching mechanics at the University in Basel from 1683, in 1684 he married Judith Stupanus, and they had two children. During this decade, he began a fertile research career. His travels allowed him to establish correspondence with many leading mathematicians and scientists of his era, during this time, he studied the new discoveries in mathematics, including Christiaan Huygenss De ratiociniis in aleae ludo, Descartes Geometrie and Frans van Schootens supplements of it. He also studied Isaac Barrow and John Wallis, leading to his interest in infinitesimal geometry, apart from these, it was between 1684 and 1689 that many of the results that were to make up Ars Conjectandi were discovered. He was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Basel in 1687, by that time, he had begun tutoring his brother Johann Bernoulli on mathematical topics. The two brothers began to study the calculus as presented by Leibniz in his 1684 paper on the calculus in Nova Methodus pro Maximis et Minimis published in Acta Eruditorum. They also studied the publications of von Tschirnhaus and it must be understood that Leibnizs publications on the calculus were very obscure to mathematicians of that time and the Bernoullis were the first to try to understand and apply Leibnizs theories. Jacob collaborated with his brother on various applications of calculus, by 1697, the relationship had completely broken down. His grave is in Basel Munster or Cathedral where the gravestone shown below is located, the lunar crater Bernoulli is also named after him jointly with his brother Johann. Jacob Bernoullis first important contributions were a pamphlet on the parallels of logic and algebra published in 1685, work on probability in 1685 and his geometry result gave a construction to divide any triangle into four equal parts with two perpendicular lines. By 1689 he had published important work on series and published his law of large numbers in probability theory

9.
Mathematical proof
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In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, in principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms, along with accepted rules of inference. Axioms may be treated as conditions that must be met before the statement applies, Proofs are examples of exhaustive deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning and are distinguished from empirical arguments or non-exhaustive inductive reasoning. A proof must demonstrate that a statement is true, rather than enumerate many confirmatory cases. An unproved proposition that is believed to be true is known as a conjecture, Proofs employ logic but usually include some amount of natural language which usually admits some ambiguity. In fact, the vast majority of proofs in mathematics can be considered as applications of rigorous informal logic. Purely formal proofs, written in language instead of natural language, are considered in proof theory. The distinction between formal and informal proofs has led to examination of current and historical mathematical practice, quasi-empiricism in mathematics. The philosophy of mathematics is concerned with the role of language and logic in proofs, the word proof comes from the Latin probare meaning to test. Related modern words are the English probe, probation, and probability, the Spanish probar, Italian provare, the early use of probity was in the presentation of legal evidence. A person of authority, such as a nobleman, was said to have probity, whereby the evidence was by his relative authority, plausibility arguments using heuristic devices such as pictures and analogies preceded strict mathematical proof. It is likely that the idea of demonstrating a conclusion first arose in connection with geometry, the development of mathematical proof is primarily the product of ancient Greek mathematics, and one of the greatest achievements thereof. Thales proved some theorems in geometry, eudoxus and Theaetetus formulated theorems but did not prove them. Aristotle said definitions should describe the concept being defined in terms of other concepts already known and his book, the Elements, was read by anyone who was considered educated in the West until the middle of the 20th century. Further advances took place in medieval Islamic mathematics, while earlier Greek proofs were largely geometric demonstrations, the development of arithmetic and algebra by Islamic mathematicians allowed more general proofs that no longer depended on geometry. In the 10th century CE, the Iraqi mathematician Al-Hashimi provided general proofs for numbers as he considered multiplication, division and he used this method to provide a proof of the existence of irrational numbers. An inductive proof for arithmetic sequences was introduced in the Al-Fakhri by Al-Karaji, alhazen also developed the method of proof by contradiction, as the first attempt at proving the Euclidean parallel postulate. Modern proof theory treats proofs as inductively defined data structures, there is no longer an assumption that axioms are true in any sense, this allows for parallel mathematical theories built on alternate sets of axioms

10.
Law of large numbers
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In probability theory, the law of large numbers is a theorem that describes the result of performing the same experiment a large number of times. According to the law, the average of the results obtained from a number of trials should be close to the expected value. The LLN is important because it guarantees stable long-term results for the averages of some random events, for example, while a casino may lose money in a single spin of the roulette wheel, its earnings will tend towards a predictable percentage over a large number of spins. Any winning streak by a player will eventually be overcome by the parameters of the game and it is important to remember that the LLN only applies when a large number of observations is considered. There is no principle that a number of observations will coincide with the expected value or that a streak of one value will immediately be balanced by the others. For example, a roll of a fair, six-sided die produces one of the numbers 1,2,3,4,5, or 6. It follows from the law of numbers that the empirical probability of success in a series of Bernoulli trials will converge to the theoretical probability. For a Bernoulli random variable, the value is the theoretical probability of success. For example, a coin toss is a Bernoulli trial. When a fair coin is flipped once, the probability that the outcome will be heads is equal to 1/2. Therefore, according to the law of numbers, the proportion of heads in a large number of coin flips should be roughly 1/2. In particular, the proportion of heads after n flips will almost surely converge to 1/2 as n approaches infinity, though the proportion of heads approaches 1/2, almost surely the absolute difference in the number of heads and tails will become large as the number of flips becomes large. That is, the probability that the difference is a small number. Also, almost surely the ratio of the difference to the number of flips will approach zero. Intuitively, expected absolute difference grows, but at a slower rate than the number of flips, the Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano stated without proof that the accuracies of empirical statistics tend to improve with the number of trials. This was then formalized as a law of large numbers, a special form of the LLN was first proved by Jacob Bernoulli. It took him over 20 years to develop a rigorous mathematical proof which was published in his Ars Conjectandi in 1713. He named this his Golden Theorem but it became known as Bernoullis Theorem

11.
Bernoulli number
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In mathematics, the Bernoulli numbers Bn are a sequence of rational numbers with deep connections to number theory. The values of the first few Bernoulli numbers are B0 =1, B±1 = ±1/2, B2 = 1/6, B3 =0, B4 = −1/30, B5 =0, B6 = 1/42, B7 =0, B8 = −1/30. The superscript ± is used by this article to designate the two conventions for Bernoulli numbers. They differ only in the sign of the n =1 term, B−n are the first Bernoulli numbers, in this convention, B−1 = −1/2. B+n are the second Bernoulli numbers, which are called the original Bernoulli numbers. In this convention, B+1 = +1/2, since Bn =0 for all odd n >1, and many formulas only involve even-index Bernoulli numbers, some authors write Bn to mean B2n. This article does not follow this notation, the Bernoulli numbers were discovered around the same time by the Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli, after whom they are named, and independently by Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa. Sekis discovery was published in 1712 in his work Katsuyo Sampo, Bernoullis, also posthumously. Ada Lovelaces note G on the Analytical Engine from 1842 describes an algorithm for generating Bernoulli numbers with Babbages machine, as a result, the Bernoulli numbers have the distinction of being the subject of the first published complex computer program. Bernoulli numbers feature prominently in the form expression of the sum of the mth powers of the first n positive integers. For m, n ≥0 define S m = ∑ k =1 n k m =1 m +2 m + ⋯ + n m and this expression can always be rewritten as a polynomial in n of degree m +1. The coefficients of polynomials are related to the Bernoulli numbers by Bernoullis formula, S m =1 m +1 ∑ k =0 m B k + n m +1 − k. For example, taking m to be 1 gives the triangular numbers 0,1,3,6, … A000217,1 +2 + ⋯ + n =12 =12. Taking m to be 2 gives the square pyramidal numbers 0,1,5,14,12 +22 + ⋯ + n 2 =13 =13. Some authors use the convention for Bernoulli numbers and state Bernoullis formula in this way. Bernoullis formula is sometimes called Faulhabers formula after Johann Faulhaber who also found ways to calculate sums of powers. Faulhabers formula was generalized by V. Guo and J. Zeng to a q-analog, many characterizations of the Bernoulli numbers have been found in the last 300 years, and each could be used to introduce these numbers. Here only four of the most useful ones are mentioned, an equation, an explicit formula, a generating function

12.
Probability theory
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Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena. It is not possible to predict precisely results of random events, two representative mathematical results describing such patterns are the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to human activities that involve quantitative analysis of large sets of data. Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, a great discovery of twentieth century physics was the probabilistic nature of physical phenomena at atomic scales, described in quantum mechanics. Christiaan Huygens published a book on the subject in 1657 and in the 19th century, initially, probability theory mainly considered discrete events, and its methods were mainly combinatorial. Eventually, analytical considerations compelled the incorporation of continuous variables into the theory and this culminated in modern probability theory, on foundations laid by Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov. Kolmogorov combined the notion of space, introduced by Richard von Mises. This became the mostly undisputed axiomatic basis for modern probability theory, most introductions to probability theory treat discrete probability distributions and continuous probability distributions separately. The more mathematically advanced measure theory-based treatment of probability covers the discrete, continuous, consider an experiment that can produce a number of outcomes. The set of all outcomes is called the space of the experiment. The power set of the space is formed by considering all different collections of possible results. For example, rolling an honest die produces one of six possible results, one collection of possible results corresponds to getting an odd number. Thus, the subset is an element of the set of the sample space of die rolls. In this case, is the event that the die falls on some odd number, If the results that actually occur fall in a given event, that event is said to have occurred. Probability is a way of assigning every event a value between zero and one, with the requirement that the event made up of all possible results be assigned a value of one, the probability that any one of the events, or will occur is 5/6. This is the same as saying that the probability of event is 5/6 and this event encompasses the possibility of any number except five being rolled. The mutually exclusive event has a probability of 1/6, and the event has a probability of 1, discrete probability theory deals with events that occur in countable sample spaces. Modern definition, The modern definition starts with a finite or countable set called the sample space, which relates to the set of all possible outcomes in classical sense, denoted by Ω

13.
William Cheselden
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William Cheselden was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession. Via the medical missionary Benjamin Hobson, his work also helped revolutionize medical practices in China, Cheselden was born at Somerby, Leicestershire. He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper, and began lecturing anatomy in 1710 and that same year, he was admitted to the London Company of Barber-Surgeons, passing the final examination on 29 January 1711. Afterwards, he was appointed surgeon for the stone at Westminster Infirmary and he also improved eye surgery, developing new techniques, particularly in the removal of cataracts. Cheselden selected as a surgeon at St Georges Hospital upon its foundation in 1733, in 1733 he published Osteographia or the Anatomy of Bones, the first full and accurate description of the anatomy of the human skeletal system. Cheselden retired from St Thomas in 1738 and moved to the Chelsea Hospital and his abode is listed as Chelsea College on the 1739 Royal Charter for the Foundling Hospital, a charity for which he was a founding governor. Cheselden is credited with performing the first known case of full recovery from blindness in 1728, Cheselden presented the celebrated case of a boy of thirteen who gained his sight after removal of the lenses rendered opaque by cataract from birth. Despite his youth, the boy encountered profound difficulties with the simplest visual perceptions, the procedure had a short duration and a low mortality rate. Cheselden had already developed in 1723 the suprapubic approach, which he published in A Treatise on the High Operation for the Stone, in France, his works were developed by Claude-Nicolas Le Cat. He also effected a great advance in ophthalmic surgery by his operation, iridectomy, described in 1728, Cheselden also described the role of saliva in digestion. He attended Sir Isaac Newton in his last illness and was a friend of Alexander Pope. Cheselden, Wm, Osteographia or the Anatomy of the Bones, scanned pages of the original work. William Cheselden Article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, complete scanned copy of the Ostepgraphia in the public domain at Biu Sante. The Anatomy of the Human Body at the Internet Archive, accuracy and Elegance in Cheseldens Osteographia article by Monique Kornell, including gallery and comprehensive links to public domain online copies. Selected images from Anatomy of the Humane Body From The College of Physicians of Philadelphia Digital Library

14.
Latin
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Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole

15.
Isaac Newton
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His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newtons Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists view of the universe for the next three centuries. Newtons work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks. He also formulated a law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint and his father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely, he was a child, his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Newtons mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham which taught Latin and Greek. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Henry Stokes, master at the Kings School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a bully, he became the top-ranked student. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge and he started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valets duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, which guaranteed him four more years until he would get his M. A. He set down in his notebook a series of Quaestiones about mechanical philosophy as he found it, in 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his B. A. degree in August 1665, in April 1667, he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was not enforced in the restoration years, however, by 1675 the issue could not be avoided and by then his unconventional views stood in the way. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II. A and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672. Newtons work has been said to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied and his work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus, seen in a manuscript of October 1666, is now published among Newtons mathematical papers

16.
Roger Cotes
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Roger Cotes FRS was an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication. He also invented the quadrature formulas known as Newton–Cotes formulas and first introduced what is today as Eulers formula. He was the first Plumian Professor at Cambridge University from 1707 until his death, Cotes was born in Burbage, Leicestershire. His parents were Robert, the rector of Burbage, and his wife Grace née Farmer, Roger had an elder brother, Anthony and a younger sister, Susanna. At first Roger attended Leicester School where his talent was recognised. His aunt Hannah had married Rev. John Smith, and Smith took on the role of tutor to encourage Rogers talent, the Smiths son, Robert Smith, would become a close associate of Roger Cotes throughout his life. Cotes later studied at St Pauls School in London and entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1699 and he graduated BA in 1702 and MA in 1706. Roger Cotess contributions to computational methods lie heavily in the fields of astronomy. Cotes began his career with a focus on astronomy. He became a fellow of Trinity College in 1707, and at age 26 he became the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy, on his appointment to professor, he opened a subscription list in an effort to provide an observatory for Trinity. Unfortunately, the still was unfinished when Cotes died, and was demolished in 1797. In correspondence with Isaac Newton, Cotes designed a telescope with a mirror revolving by clockwork. He recomputed the solar and planetary tables of Giovanni Domenico Cassini and John Flamsteed, finally, in 1707 he formed a school of physical sciences at Trinity in partnership with William Whiston. From 1709 to 1713, Cotes became heavily involved with the edition of Newtons Principia. The first edition of Principia had only a few copies printed and was in need of revision to include Newtons works and principles of lunar, Newton at first had a casual approach to the revision, since he had all but given up scientific work. However, through the passion displayed by Cotes, Newtons scientific hunger was once again reignited. The two spent nearly three and half years collaborating on the work, in which they fully deduce, from Newtons laws of motion, the theory of the moon, the equinoxes, only 750 copies of the second edition were printed. However, a copy from Amsterdam met all other demand

17.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
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Fahrenheit was born in the city of Danzig, Pomeranian Voivodeship in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but lived most of his life in the Dutch Republic. The Fahrenheits were a German Hanse merchant family who had lived in several Hanseatic cities, Fahrenheits great-grandfather had lived in Rostock, and research suggests that the Fahrenheit family originated in Hildesheim. Daniels grandfather moved from Kneiphof in Königsberg to Danzig and settled there as a merchant in 1650 and his son, Daniel Fahrenheit, married Concordia Schumann, daughter of a well-known Danzig business family. Daniel was the eldest of the five Fahrenheit children who survived childhood and his sister, Virginia Elizabeth Fahrenheit, married Benjamin Ephraim Krueger of an aristocratic family from Danzig. Daniel Gabriel began training as a merchant in Amsterdam after his parents died on 14 August 1701 from eating poisonous mushrooms, however, Fahrenheits interest in natural science led him to begin studies and experimentation in that field. From 1717, he traveled to Berlin, Halle, Leipzig, Dresden, Copenhagen, and also to his hometown, during that time, Fahrenheit met or was in contact with Ole Rømer, Christian Wolff, and Gottfried Leibniz. In 1717, Fahrenheit settled in The Hague as a glassblower, making barometers, altimeters, from 1718 onwards, he lectured in chemistry in Amsterdam. He visited England in 1724 and was the year elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Fahrenheit died in The Hague and was buried there at the Kloosterkerk, according to Fahrenheits 1724 article, he determined his scale by reference to three fixed points of temperature. The lowest temperature was achieved by preparing a frigorific mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride, the thermometer then was placed into the mixture and the liquid in the thermometer allowed to descend to its lowest point. The thermometers reading there was taken as 0 °F, the second reference point was selected as the reading of the thermometer when it was placed in still water when ice was just forming on the surface. This was assigned as 32 °F, the third calibration point, taken as 96 °F, was selected as the thermometers reading when the instrument was placed under the arm or in the mouth. Fahrenheit came up with the idea that Mercury boils around 300 degrees on this temperature scale, work by others showed that water boils about 180 degrees above its freezing point. It is because of the scales redefinition that normal body temperature today is taken as 98.6 degrees, the Fahrenheit scale was the primary temperature standard for climatic, industrial and medical purposes in English-speaking countries until the 1960s, nowadays replaced by Celsius. In 2012, scientists from the Gdansk University of Technology made an image of his face using photos of his relatives. Fahrenheit hydrometer List of Dutch inventors and discoverers Bolton, Henry Carrington, easton, Pennsylvania, The Chemical Publishing Company. Fahrenheit, D. G. Experimenta circa gradum caloris liquorum nonnullorum ebullientium instituta, philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Fahrenheit, D. G. Experimenta et Observationes de Congelatione aquae in vacuo factae, philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

18.
Alcohol
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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the alcohol ethanol, the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names also typically indicates that the substance includes a functional group and, so. But many substances, particularly sugars contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix, an important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members is the saturated straight chain alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. The word alcohol is from the Arabic kohl, a used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English, alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S3, hence the essence or spirit of this substance. It was used as an antiseptic, eyeliner, and cosmetic, the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol, when spirits as a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, Vigo wrote, the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre. The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium, by extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including alcohol of wine, the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum, Johnson glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat. The words meaning became restricted to spirit of wine in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as alcohols in modern chemistry after 1850, the term ethanol was invented 1892, based on combining the word ethane with ol the last part of alcohol. In the IUPAC system, in naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds ol, e. g. as in methanol and ethanol. When necessary, the position of the group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the ol, propan-1-ol for CH 3CH 2CH 2OH, propan-2-ol for CH 3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present, then the prefix hydroxy is used, in other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word alcohol, e. g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH, the simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RRCHOH, the simplest of which is 2-propanol, for the tertiary alcohols the general form is RRRCOH